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Transcript of Confucian Teachings
Agenda for 10/25/05
Confucian OverviewConfucius is aRomanization of a Chinese name- Kong Fu Tzi(u) or Kung Fu Tzi(u)Born @ 551 B.C.E.Called his teachings juchiao (the way of the scholars)Coexisted with Taoism and Buddhism for thousands of years in China
Confucianism- Taoism TimelineLao Tzu born between 600 and 300 BCEHan dynasty (206 BCE to 220 CE)- early Taoist sects establishedInter-related and competing?Confucius born @551 BCEHan dynasty (206 BCE to 220 CE)- Confucian classics used for civil serviceInter-related and competing?Confucian IdeasFive key relationships and their cross-currentsParent and childOlder sibling and younger siblingHusband and wifeOlder friend and younger friendRuler and subjectWhat are the common elements in these five relationships?Are there any others that could be added?How would this focus compare to that of Taoism?Confucian Key Termspropriety jen (innate goodness/perfect virtue) li (honoring of ancestors/right conduct in the five relationships) filial piety- having a relationship like that of child to parentIdeal life= the gentleman-scholar/civil servant
Rectification of NamesThe topic of language clarification appears in book 13 of the AnalectsBasic premise= language must be precise in referring to titles and social rolesIf one claims a social role, then one must have the character and show the behavior appropriate to that role.The Five Confucian ClassicsI-Ching- The Book of Changes Shu-ching- The Book of HistoryShih-ching- The Book of Odes- poems supposedly collected and edited by ConfuciusRitual- Several books on philosophy, rituals, and even table manners; the most important of these is The Book of Rites Ch'un ch'iu- The Spring and Autumn Annals- a history of a single Chinese province from about 700 to 500 B.C. Confucius lived in this province and supposedly assembled these annals himself. The Four BooksPromoted by Neo-Confucians of the 10th-13th centuryAnalects of ConfuciusAnalects of MenciusThe Doctrine of the MeanThe Great LearningAnalects=selections or parts of a literary work or group of works
Selections from the AnalectsWhat does Confucius say about supernatural or other-worldly subjects (144:12, 145:3)?How does he describe the man of humanity (146:2)?What is the most important quality a successful ruler must never lose (145:5)?ICW task- Choose ONE of the options belowOption One- How would either Confucian or Taoist thinking impact society positively? Could they work together effectively?
Option Two- Generally speaking, what kinds of virtues are suggested by Confucius? How do they compare with traditional virtues embraced by Western culture?Shinto- An Indigenous Religion?
DefinitionsWhat is an indigenous tradition?descendants of original inhabitants of lands now controlled by political systems in which they have little or no controlHow can we define original inhabitants?Are indigenous groups always in flux?
People Versus TraditionsWhich one can be said to be indigenous?Religions blend and borrow constantly in order to blend with local traditionsBuddhism kami from Shinto as incarnations of BuddhaChristianity- proximity of Christmas and winter solstice
An Eastern Example- Shintoshin (divine being) + to (way)
AnimisticWhat does this word mean?Focused on harmony with natural surroundingsPractice surrounds the worship/veneration of kami (same character as shin)Not identified by name until the arrival of Buddhism in Japan
Kami PracticesKami= spirit or divine thingKamikaze - divine windKami are everywhere in natural worldShrines honor kamiGroves of trees, streams, bodies of waterEnclosed natural space where sacred space beginsTorii (tall gate frames) used to delineate spaceCan also be a public hall/offering hallNo images in worship, all is in natureShinto ConceptsKannagara- celestial harmonyThe purpose of Shinto practice is to bring harmony to our lives through natureLiving according to the natural flow of the universeMisogi- ritual purification through water, often a waterfall Other Shinto ConceptsO- Harai- an exorcism of bad sprits or a ritual blessingWhy is it performed on cars and new buildings?State Shinto- established in the Meiji eraLast traditional era for JapanIf it is state sponsored, how can it be indigenous?
Harmony in Architecture
Shinto Practice in Sports
Shinto Practice in SumoShiko- ritual foot stomping to cleanse the ring of evil spiritsPurifying water- splashed into ring for cleansingSalt throws- also for cleansing the ringClapping- done by two sumotori in unison to call the attention of beneficial kami
More Shiko Examples
Sumo Wrestlers in Action
Shinto MatsuriFestivals have community/civic as well as religious purposeBuddhist and Shinto interaction commonplaceMusic, dance and artistic expression are all elements in Shinto practiceCheck out the ribald stories the narrators enjoy!