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  • Conflicts in the Niger Delta: Analysis of Causes, Impacts and Resolution Strategies

    M.A. Habiba

    Submitted version deposited in Coventry University’s Institutional Repository Original citation: Conflict in the Niger Delta holds profound implications for the democratic and developmental transformation of Nigeria. The analysis of the causes and impacts of the oil conflict in the region, and of strategies to resolve it, requires an understanding of the traditionally and constitutionally enshrined resource rights of the marginalised inhabitants. Patterns of resource appropriation by multinational oil companies and the mismanagement of resource revenue by federal government, and the associated environmental pollution, remain a legacy of the topdown approaches that have been employed in an attempt to resolve conflicts in the Niger Delta. These approaches have largely failed to effectively address the complex issues affecting the indigenes and have even triggered further dissention amongst various local communities. Using grounded theory as a research method, this thesis explores the grassroots approach to conflict resolution in the Niger Delta region as a socio-political paradigm for developing substantive content for the resolution of conflict in this oil- rich region of Nigeria. Drawing on history and using social and conflict theories, the paper investigates the potential for the bottom-up approach to be applied to the conflict resolution paradigm, in order to advance a sustainable peace process and promote economic, political and social transformation in Nigeria – and, in particular, the Niger Delta region. Copyright © and Moral Rights are retained by the author. A copy can be downloaded for personal non-commercial research or study, without prior permission or charge. This item cannot be reproduced or quoted extensively from without first obtaining permission in writing from the copyright holder(s). The content must not be changed in any way or sold commercially in any format or medium without the formal permission of the copyright holders. Some materials have been removed from this thesis due to Third Party Copyright. Pages where material has been removed are clearly marked in the electronic version. The unabridged version of the thesis can be viewed at the Lanchester Library, Coventry University.

  • Conflicts in the Niger Delta: Analysis of Causes, Impacts and Resolution

    Strategies

    M. A. Habiba

    February 2018

    A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the University’s requirements for the Degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

  • ii

    Library Declaration and

    Deposit Agreement

    Forename: Habiba

    Family Name: Ahmed Musa

    Student ID:4718750 Faculty: BES

    Award: PHD

    Thesis Title: Conflicts In The Niger Delta: Analysis Of Causes And Resolution Strategies.

    Freedom of Information: Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOIA) ensures access to any information held by Coventry University, including theses, unless an exception or exceptional circumstances apply. In the interest of scholarship, theses of the University are normally made freely available online in the Institutions Repository, immediately on deposit. You may wish to restrict access to your thesis for a period of up to three years. Reasons for restricting access to the electronic thesis should be derived from exemptions under FOIA. (Please also refer to the University Regulations Section 8.12.5)

    Do you wish to restrict access to thesis/submission: NO

    Please note: If your thesis includes your publications in the appendix, please ensure you seek approval from the publisher first, and include their approval with this form. If they have not given approval, they will need to be removed from the version of your thesis made available in the Institutional Repository.

    If Yes please specify reason for restriction:

    Length of restriction:

    Does any organisation, other than Coventry University, have an interest in the Intellectual Property Rights to your work?

    NO

    If Yes please specify Organisation:

    Please specify the nature of their interest:

    Signature: Habiba Ahmed Musa Date: 4/09/2018

    For Doctoral College and Centre for Research Capability and Development use

    Date Final Thesis Submitted

    Date of Thesis release to Library

    http://www.coventry.ac.uk/life-on-campus/the-university/key-information/registry/academic-regulations/

  • iii

  • iv

    Abstract

    Conflict in the Niger Delta holds profound implications for the democratic and developmental

    transformation of Nigeria. The analysis of the causes and impacts of the oil conflict in the

    region, and of strategies to resolve it, requires an understanding of the traditionally and

    constitutionally enshrined resource rights of the marginalised inhabitants. Patterns of resource

    appropriation by multinational oil companies and the mismanagement of resource revenue by

    federal government, and the associated environmental pollution, remain a legacy of the top-

    down approaches that have been employed in an attempt to resolve conflicts in the Niger Delta.

    These approaches have largely failed to effectively address the complex issues affecting the

    indigenes and have even triggered further dissention amongst various local communities. Using

    grounded theory as a research method, this thesis explores the grassroots approach to conflict

    resolution in the Niger Delta region as a socio-political paradigm for developing substantive

    content for the resolution of conflict in this oil-rich region of Nigeria. Drawing on history and

    using social and conflict theories, the paper investigates the potential for the bottom-up

    approach to be applied to the conflict resolution paradigm, in order to advance a sustainable

    peace process and promote economic, political and social transformation in Nigeria – and, in

    particular, the Niger Delta region.

  • v

    Dedication

    This thesis is dedicated to my mum, Maryam Isa Mele, and dad, Dr. Musa Ahmed Musa, for

    their enshrined love and amazing patience expressed to me throughout the completion of this

    work.

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    Acknowledgements

    Most importantly and number one praise is due to Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta‟ala Alhamdulilah.

    Words alone cannot express my gratitude to my sister, Memuna Sherif Lawan. I thank her for

    being my best friend, someone I can always confide in, a person who shares my problems and

    is always ready to lend a helping hand. Many thanks to her husband, Abba Lawan, and their

    children, Ammah and Musliu, who always bring a smile to my face. The same gratitude is also

    extended to my brothers and sisters Isa, Umar, Amina and Khadija (big mummy) for their

    support and wise words. I am also grateful to all my friends and family members for their

    prayer supports and to Coventry University for giving me the opportunity to study at the

    institution and for the institutional support during my academic stay in the UK.

    This thesis would have not been possible without the sponsorship funding and support I

    received from the Petroleum Technology Fund (PTDF) and the Nigerian government for

    establishing the fund. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr Aminu Galadinma, Head of

    Education and Training Department, and Hajiya Rabi Adamu Waziri, for their consideration.

    This gratitude goes also to Roseline Ezeorah and all the wonderful staff that work tirelessly in

    assisting applications. I am grateful for their financial support toward the achievement of this

    research.

    I owe a debt of gratitude to my mentor and Professor Alan Hunter, who gave me the

    opportunity to offer my research on a very serious national issue. I thank him for believing in

    me and seeing the potential in me as a PhD candidate.

    This research would not have been possible without the invaluable mentorship, support and

    encouragement of Dr. James Malcolm. I am particularly grateful for his patience, feedback,

    encouragement and help, as my Director of Studies, in the building of my confidence,

    particularly when I wanted to give up. His dedication to this work is commendable and I will

    always appreciate him. I would also like to thank my supervisors, Dr Miho Taka and Professor

    Gordon Crawford for their guidance and expertise in my area of research. They provided

  • vii

    intellectual inspiration and their vast understanding was the missing puzzle helping me to

    complete my thesis. I will never forget their methodological advice, valuable feedback and

    understanding and tolerance. I am truly privileged to have worked with such a brilliant team of

    experts whom I am indebted to.

    I also want to thank the amazing staff at the Centre for Trust Peace and Social Relations,

    CTPSR Coventry University for their professional and good-natured collaboration with me. I

    also wish to thank all the people who accepted to partake in my research during my various

    fieldworks in Nigeria. I am particularly grateful to the members of the national assembly,

    multinational oil company representati