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CONCEPT OF PITTA, ByDr. Surama Mishra, Department of Kriyasareera,Government Ayurveda College,Pariyaram,Kannur

Transcript of Concept of pitta ks




Dr. Surama Mishra MD (Ay) Dept of Kriyasareera

Department of Kriyasareera, Government Ayurveda College,

Pariyaram, Kannur

2006 -2007

Department of Post-Graduate studies in KRIYASAREERA





CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the compilation entitled Concept of Pitta is the record

of bona fide work done by Dr. Surama Mishra, under the direct supervision and

guidance of me, in the Dept. of Kriyasareera, Govt. Ayurveda College, Kannur.

I strongly recommend and forward the same for being submitted for evaluation.

Dr.Anny Yohannan. MD (Ay), Professor & H.O.D., Date: Dept. of Kriyasareera, Place: Pariyaram Govt.Ayurveda College, Pariyaram, Kannur.



Sl. No

Content Page No.

1 Introduction 1 2 Definition of Pitta 3 3 Physical properties of the pitta 3 4 Location of Pitta 4 5 General functions of the Pitta 6 6 Panchabhautic constitution 8 7 Types of Agni 8 8 Jatharagni, Bhutagni, Dhatwagni 9 9 Agni and pitta 11 10 Types of Pitta 12 11 Pachaka Pitta 13 12 Ahara Pachana - Avasthapaka 15 13 Bhutagnipaka 17 14 Dhatwagnipaka 18 15 Types of Paka 19 16 Ranjaka Pitta 20 17 Sadhaka Pitta 22 18 Alochaka Pitta 24 19 Bhrajaka Pitta 27 20 Pitta and Bile 32 21 Conclusion 33 22 Bibliography 34



Ayurveda the ancient science of healing is based on the tridosha theory. The

trodosha i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha are associated with the human body right from the

time of fertilization of the ovum till the death. These humors remain in the healthy

body in the state of equilibrium and perform all the physiological functions. In the

vitiated state they pollute the whole body and responsible for disease production.

These tridosha during the state of normalcy as they keep the body in equilibrium

are known as Dhatus. If this equilibrium is disturbed, the physiological functions of

the body go disturbed and lead to initiation of the development of the diseases. This

stage is known as vitiated stages and the humors are then called Doshas. In a highly

vitiated state, these humors transform into waste products which are to be ejected from

body and therefore they are called Malas. No disease is possible without the

association of these three humors and they are the direct cause of a disease and also of

health. Vata, Pitta and Kapha are the causes of production, preservation and

destruction of the body.

Vata, Pitta and Kapha pervade the whole body, but their special seats in the normal

state are lower, middle and upper portions of the body respectively. Thus as three

pillars can support a building, so also these humors support and maintain the body.

Because they support the body, they are called Tristhunas

All the Tridoshas are important for the body but different Acharyas have given

importance to particular doshas like Rishi Marichi has given importance to pitta. He

also described that the agni of the body that is implicit in pitta is responsible for subha

karma i.e. maintaining health in normal state and Asubha karmas i.e. disease

production in vitiated state. As per Ayurvedic classics the beginning of each disease

mandagni is the cause and its treatment is nothing but Antaragni chikitsa. Hence from


physiological, pathological and treatment point of view, Agni is most important. Pitta

has been described as agni or fire as it performs actions similar to fire such as pachana

(digestion), dahana (burning), parinamana (conversion), paravritti (transformation)

etc. Among the various functions of pitta, digestion and metabolism is the most

important because the fate of the sarira dhatus and the sarira as a whole is dependent

on this process. The food when ingested undergoes various transformation with the

help of the Agni (pitta) and gets assimilated nourishes and replenishes the body

dhatus. Along with these, some other important functions attributed to pitta as a whole

are visual functions-especially the splitting of the light, photo and chemo synthesis,

maintenance of body temperature, imparts colour and luster to the skin, heat

production, haemopoiesis and other higher mental faculties and emotional stress.

These above functions are carried out by pitta in the state of normalcy; in the vitiated

state these above functions are hampered.


Definition of Pitta The term Pitta has a number of synonyms of which the more significant ones are

agni and anala. It is derived from the Sanskrit root tap and it has three meaning viz.

Tap dahe - meaning to burn the ingested food

Tap santape- meaning to generate heat

Tap aiswarye- meaning to enable to attain the eightfold nature of animadi.

(Siddhanta kaumudi). The word dahana does not indicate the actual burning as in the

physical world. Since this action is occurring in the living body, it is to be understood

as paka interpreted as parinama- conversion or transformation and paravrtti-

transmutation of the respective fuels of the Agnis Pittas of the body. This definition

explains the main functions of pitta.

F: st* F: u:* ( Medini-Amarakosha)

Physical properties of the pitta-

Acharya Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata defined Physical properties of the pitta


Colour: - According to sushruta the colours of pitta are nila (blue) and peeta (yellow).

Dalhana explained that the colour is nila when the pitta is in ama state and yellow in

the nirama state.

Taste: - Katu (pungent) and amla (acid) taste. Sushruta stated that the taste of pitta is

katu in Prakrita avastha, and in vidangdha state, which according to Dalhana is the

ama or immature state, is amla (acid) taste.

Smell: - Visrata gandha.

Consistency: - Fluid (drava).

Other qualities:- Snigdha (unctuous), Ushna (hot), Tikshna (penetrative), Sara

(mobile), laghu (light) and visada (clear).


From the above lines it is clear that pitta may be in two states i.e. 1. Ama state, where

it is bluish in colour and acid in taste and 2. Nirama state, where it is yellow in colour

and pungent in taste.

According to chakrapani, the pitta is of two varieties i.e. 1. Which is fluid and

unctuous, the natural variety controlling the physiological functions and 2. Which is

nirdrava and rooksha that causes Jwara and other diseases.

(Ref.Charaka:Sutra:1/60,Charaka:Sutra:20/15,Charaka:Viman:8/97, Sushruta:

Sutra:21/11, Sushruta:Sutra:42/9, Ash:sam:sutra 1/11)

Pramana (quantity) - The normal quantity of pitta in the body is five anjalis i.e. five

times the quantity that can be contained in the space created by joining both the hands

in the form of a cup.

Location of Pitta-

The following are the seats of pitta.

Nabhi ( umbilical region)


Pakvamasaya madhya

Rasa ( Rasa dhatu or nutrient body fluid)


Rudhira (Blood)

Sweda ( sweat)

Chakshu (eyes)

Sparsanam (skin)

According to Chakrapani, Amashaya can be divided into two hypothetical parts

i.e. 1. Upper part which is the seat of kapha and 2. Lower part which is the seat of

pitta. (chakrapani- Charaka: Sutra.20/8)

According to Sushruta, the seat of pitta is Pakvamasaya madhya, i.e. the interior of the

amasaya and the pakvasaya. According to Charaka, Amasaya is the special seat of


pitta and Vagbhata stated that Nabhi is considered as the special seat. (Sushruta:


Charaka considered the amasaya as the special seat of the pitta, perhaps because the

digestion of the food is initiated here and the diseases like amlapitta and

parinamasoola are closely associated with the amlavastha of the digestion i.e. in

amasaya. Since the amasaya is stated to be the place of digestion, it may also be

mentioned that the amasaya is the site wherein the ama is generated. Pitta has already

been stated to be amla (acid) in an immature state and katu (pungent) in the mature

state. Since the pitta is located both in amasaya, where the ingested food is not

completely digested and pakvasaya, where the digestion is completed. (Charaka:


Vagbhatas str