Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste

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  • CODEN:LUTEDX/(TEIE-7222)/1-49/(2005)

    Composition of urine, faeces,greywater and biowastefor utilisation in the URWARE model

    Hkan Jnsson, Andras Baky, Ulf Jeppsson, DanielHellstrm and Erik Krrman

    Dept. of Industrial Electrical Engineering and AutomationLund University

  • The Mistra ProgrammeUrban Water

    Composition of urine, faeces, greywaterand biowastefor utilisation in the URWARE model

    HKAN JNSSONANDRAS BAKYULF JEPPSSONDANIEL HELLSTRMERIK KRRMAN

    Urban Water CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGYGothenburg, Sweden, 2005 Report 2005:6

  • Report 2005:6

    ISSN 1650-3791

    Urban Water

    Chalmers University of Technology

    412 96 Gothenburg

    Sweden

    Phone +46 31 772 21 37

    www.urbanwater.org

    Urban Water, Chalmers University of Technology, 2005

    Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowastefor utilisation in the URWARE model

    Hkan Jnsson, Andras Baky,

    Ulf Jeppsson, Daniel Hellstrm,

    and Erik Krrman

    Urban Water Report 2005:6

    III

  • 4 5

    Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model

    Table of content

    Preface .............................................................................................................. 5

    Abstract .............................................................................................................. 6

    1. Introduction ....................................................................................................... 7

    2. The URWARE input vectors ............................................................................. 9

    2.1 Drinking water ............................................................................................. 10

    2.2 Urine ........................................................................................................... 10

    2.2.1 H2O, TS, VS and TSS.............................................................................. 12

    2.2.2 COD and BOD7........................................................................................ 12

    2.2.3 NPK and S............................................................................................... 13

    2.2.4 Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn) ........................................ 15

    2.3 Faeces ........................................................................................................ 16

    2.3.1 TS, VS and TSS and water ..................................................................... 16

    2.3.2 COD and BOD7........................................................................................ 18

    2.3.3 NPK and S............................................................................................... 18

    2.3.4 Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn) ........................................ 20

    2.4 Toilet flushwater .......................................................................................... 21

    2.5 Household greywater .................................................................................. 22

    2.5.1 TS, VS, TSS, BOD7, COD and water ...................................................... 22

    2.5.2 NPK and S............................................................................................... 24

    2.5.3 Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn) ........................................ 25

    2.6 Greywater also from society ....................................................................... 26

    2.7 Total wastewater (urine + faeces + greywater) ........................................... 26

    2.7.1 Comparisons of BOD7, COD, P and N with wastewater

    measurements.................................................................................................. 29

    2.7.2 Comparisons of heavy metal content ...................................................... 32

    2.8 Compostable household waste................................................................... 32

    2.9 Conversion of C-fractions to COD .............................................................. 36

    2.9.1 Easily degradable carbohydrates (chfd) .................................................. 37

    2.9.2 Medium degradable (chmd) carbohydrates (cellulose and starch).......... 37

    2.9.3 Slowly degradable organics (chsd).......................................................... 37

    2.9.4 Proteins ................................................................................................... 37

    2.9.5 Fat and oil................................................................................................ 37

    2.10 Content of C-fractions in faeces................................................................ 38

    2.11 Transformation of COD in sludge to C-fractions ....................................... 39

    3. References ....................................................................................................... 41

  • 4 5

    Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model

    Preface

    When analysing new types of sewage systems, knowledge is needed on the composition of the different wastewater fractions. The computer model URWARE, developed from the model ORWARE, is intended to analyse and compare different wastewater system structures, e.g. to compare wastewater systems where urine and/or faeces are source separated with conventional wastewater systems, where the different wastewater fractions are mixed with each other. To use URWARE for this purpose, knowledge was needed on the composition of the wastewater fractions urine, faeces and household greywater. Sometimes the compostable household waste is mixed into the wastewater by use of a food waste disposer and thus also the composition of the solid compostable household waste is needed. Thus, the objective of the present report was to collect the knowledge on the mass and composition of urine, faeces, greywater and compostable household waste in Sweden.

    Hkan Jnsson, Andras Baky and Ulf Jeppsson wrote this report, but it was discussed and developed by the whole URWARE task group (Erik Krrman, Andras Baky, Daniel Hellstrm, Ulf Jeppsson and Hkan Jnsson) within the Mistra program Urban Water (Sustainable Urban Water Manage-ment). Important input was also received from our reference group consist-ing of Professor emeritus Peter Balmer (formerly Chalmers University of Technology, Professor Jes la Cour Jansen (Lund University) and Professor Bengt Hultman (KTH Royal Institute of Technology).

    Mistra financed the project via the Urban Water Programme.

  • 6 7

    Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model

    Abstract

    To analyse and compare new types of sewage systems, knowledge on the composition of the different wastewater fractions is needed. In some systems the compostable household waste is mixed into the wastewater by use of a food waste disposer and thus the composition of the solid compostable household waste is also needed. The objective of the present report was to compile well-validated default values on the mass and composition of urine, faeces, greywater and compostable household waste in Sweden for use in Substance Flow Analyses (SFA) of different wastewater systems. The proposed default values are developed to fill the needs of the simulation model URWARE. However, the use of the proposed default values are not limited to URWARE simulations, rather they can be used whenever default flows and composition of the described fractions are needed.

    Where local conditions differ significantly from average Swedish condi-tions then modifications are certainly necessary, but for general base-line investigations of different treatment system the given default vectors should be valuable. However, the vectors contain no stormwater and no industrial wastewater and thus, whenever these fractions enter the wastewater system, their compositions need to be found elsewhere.

    The defined default vectors are based on a thoroughly analysed literature study and a few additional measurements. Default flows and composition are given for urine, faeces, household greywater and compostable household waste. For these fractions the composition is described by 31 parameters, the flow of water, total and suspended solids, organic matter, BOD

    7, total

    and fractioned COD, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur and flow of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, mercury, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. A few main parameters for the proposed default vectors are shortly given in the Table below.

    Parameter Urine Faeces & toilet paper

    Greywater total

    Household wastewater

    Compostable household waste

    TS 7 19 26 53 25

    VS 3 17 15 35 21

    COD tot

    3 23 23 49 34

    BOD7

    2 12 12 27 12

    Ntot

    4.0 0.5 0.6 5.1 0.6

    Ptot

    0.33 0.18 0.25 0.76 0.10

    Stot

    0.26 0.06 0.17 0.48 0.05

    Ktot

    0.88 0.33 0.29 1.49 0.23

    Table.URWARE default vec-tors for urine, faeces, greywater, household wastewater and com-postable waste, expres-sed as kg pe-1year-1

  • 6 7

    Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model Composition of urine, faeces, greywater and biowaste for utilisation in the URWARE model

    1 Introduction

    In this report