Complete Aircraft Engine Amp Aircraft Systems

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  • Volume 2ENGINES AND AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

    Power Hungry

    Table of Contents

    PART

    SECT

    CHAP

    TITLE

    1 PROPULSION1 Propulsion Theory

    1 Basic Theory and Principles ofPropulsion

    2 Piston Engine1 Introduction to Piston Engines2 Engine Handling

    3 Gas Turbines1 Gas Turbine Theory2 Intakes3 Compressors4 Combustion Systems5 Turbines6 Exhaust System7 Thrust Augmentation8 Engine Control and Fuel

    Systems

    Volume 2ENGINES AND AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

    Power Hungry

    Table of Contents

    PART

    SECT

    CHAP

    TITLE

    1 PROPULSION1 Propulsion Theory

    1 Basic Theory and Principles ofPropulsion

    2 Piston Engine1 Introduction to Piston Engines2 Engine Handling

    3 Gas Turbines1 Gas Turbine Theory2 Intakes3 Compressors4 Combustion Systems5 Turbines6 Exhaust System7 Thrust Augmentation8 Engine Control and Fuel

    Systems

    DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456

    Page 1 : Wed Jan 02 02:23:58 2002 Volume 2 2- 0- 0- 0

  • 9 Cooling and Lubrication10 Thrust Reversal and Noise

    Suppression11 Engine Handling

    4 Gas Turbine Derivatives1 Lift / Propulsion Engines2 Turboprop and Turboshaft

    Engines3 Bypass Engines

    5 Miscellaneous PropulsionSystems

    1 Rocket Motors and Ram Jets6 Propellers

    1 Propeller Operation7 Aviation Fuels and Engine

    Maintenance1 Aviation Fuels2 Engine Health Monitoring and

    Maintenance2 AIRCRAFT ANCILLARY

    SYSTEMS1 Principles

    1 Hydraulic Systems2 Pneumatic Systems3 Electrical Systems

    2 Ancillary Systems1 Powered Flying Controls2 Cabin Pressurization and Air

    Conditioning Systems3 Undercarriages4 Automatic Flight Control

    Systems5 Fire Warning and Extinguisher

    Systems6 Ice and Rain Protection

    Systems7 Aircraft Fuel Systems8 Secondary Power Systems,

    Auxiliary and EmergencyPower Units

    9 Engine Starter Systems

    PROPULSION

    Propulsion Theory

    9 Cooling and Lubrication10 Thrust Reversal and Noise

    Suppression11 Engine Handling

    4 Gas Turbine Derivatives1 Lift / Propulsion Engines2 Turboprop and Turboshaft

    Engines3 Bypass Engines

    5 Miscellaneous PropulsionSystems

    1 Rocket Motors and Ram Jets6 Propellers

    1 Propeller Operation7 Aviation Fuels and Engine

    Maintenance1 Aviation Fuels2 Engine Health Monitoring and

    Maintenance2 AIRCRAFT ANCILLARY

    SYSTEMS1 Principles

    1 Hydraulic Systems2 Pneumatic Systems3 Electrical Systems

    2 Ancillary Systems1 Powered Flying Controls2 Cabin Pressurization and Air

    Conditioning Systems3 Undercarriages4 Automatic Flight Control

    Systems5 Fire Warning and Extinguisher

    Systems6 Ice and Rain Protection

    Systems7 Aircraft Fuel Systems8 Secondary Power Systems,

    Auxiliary and EmergencyPower Units

    9 Engine Starter Systems

    PROPULSION

    Propulsion Theory

    DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456

    Page 2 : Wed Jan 02 02:23:59 2002 Propulsion Theory 2- 1- 1- 1

  • Chapter 1 - Basic Theory and Principles of Propulsion

    Introduction1. When an aircraft is travelling through air in straight and level flight and at a constant true airspeed (TAS), the engines mustproduce a total thrust equal to the drag on the aircraft as shown in Fig 1. If the engine thrust exceeds the drag, the aircraft willaccelerate, and if the drag exceeds the thrust, the aircraft will slow down.

    2. Although a variety of engine types are available for aircraft propulsion, the thrust force must always come from air or gasreaction forces normally acting on the engine or propeller surfaces.

    3. The two common methods of aircraft propulsion are:

    a. The propeller engine powered by piston or gas turbine.

    b. The jet engine.

    Rotary wing aircraft are powered by turboshaft engines which produce shaft power to drive a gearbox and work on similarprinciples to gas turbine propeller engines (turboprops), except that all the available energy is absorbed by the turbine, with noresidual jet thrust. Turboshaft engines are considered in Sect 4, Chap 2.

    2-1-1-1 Fig 1 Arrangement of Thrust and Drag Forces

    The Propeller Engine4. With a propeller engine, the engine power produced drives a shaft which is connected to a propeller usually via a gearbox.The propeller cuts through the air accelerating it rearwards. The blade of a propeller behaves in the same way as the aerofoil ofan aircraft; the air speeds up over the leading face of the propeller blade causing a reduced pressure with a correspondingincrease of pressure on the rearward face (see Fig 2). This leads to a net pressure force over the propeller where Pressure Area = Force thus providing thrust, eg:

    Given: Net pressure of 40 kPa (Pa=N/m2)

    and a Blade area of 1 m2

    Thrust = 40 kPa 1 m2 = 40 kN

    With gas turbine powered propeller engines, a small amount of thrust is produced by the jet exhaust which will augment thethrust produced by the propeller.

    5. An alternative method of calculating the thrust produced by a propeller is provided by Newtons laws of motion which give:

    Chapter 1 - Basic Theory and Principles of Propulsion

    Introduction1. When an aircraft is travelling through air in straight and level flight and at a constant true airspeed (TAS), the engines mustproduce a total thrust equal to the drag on the aircraft as shown in Fig 1. If the engine thrust exceeds the drag, the aircraft willaccelerate, and if the drag exceeds the thrust, the aircraft will slow down.

    2. Although a variety of engine types are available for aircraft propulsion, the thrust force must always come from air or gasreaction forces normally acting on the engine or propeller surfaces.

    3. The two common methods of aircraft propulsion are:

    a. The propeller engine powered by piston or gas turbine.

    b. The jet engine.

    Rotary wing aircraft are powered by turboshaft engines which produce shaft power to drive a gearbox and work on similarprinciples to gas turbine propeller engines (turboprops), except that all the available energy is absorbed by the turbine, with noresidual jet thrust. Turboshaft engines are considered in Sect 4, Chap 2.

    2-1-1-1 Fig 1 Arrangement of Thrust and Drag Forces

    The Propeller Engine4. With a propeller engine, the engine power produced drives a shaft which is connected to a propeller usually via a gearbox.The propeller cuts through the air accelerating it rearwards. The blade of a propeller behaves in the same way as the aerofoil ofan aircraft; the air speeds up over the leading face of the propeller blade causing a reduced pressure with a correspondingincrease of pressure on the rearward face (see Fig 2). This leads to a net pressure force over the propeller where Pressure Area = Force thus providing thrust, eg:

    Given: Net pressure of 40 kPa (Pa=N/m2)

    and a Blade area of 1 m2

    Thrust = 40 kPa 1 m2 = 40 kN

    With gas turbine powered propeller engines, a small amount of thrust is produced by the jet exhaust which will augment thethrust produced by the propeller.

    5. An alternative method of calculating the thrust produced by a propeller is provided by Newtons laws of motion which give:

    DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456

    Page 3 : Wed Jan 02 02:24:01 2002 Propulsion Theory 2- 1- 1- 1

  • Force = Mass Acceleration

    Thrust = Mass flow rate of air through Propeller Increase in velocity of the air

    = M (Vj Va)

    Where M = Mass ow rate of the air

    Vj = Velocity of slipstream

    Va = Velocity of the aircraft (TAS)

    This will give the same result as that given by the sum of pressure forces. In the case of the propeller, the air mass flow will belarge, and the increase in velocity given to the air will be fairly small.

    The Jet Engine6. In all cases of the jet engine, a high velocity exhaust gas is produced, the velocity of which, relative to the engine, isconsiderably greater than the TAS. Thrust is produced according to the equation in para 5 ie:

    Thrust = M (Vj Va)

    where Vj is now the velocity of the gas stream at the propelling nozzle (see Fig 3). This represents a simplified version of thefull thrust equation as the majority of thrust produced is a result of the momentum change of the gas stream.

    2-1-1-1 Fig 2 Propeller Thrust

    2-1-1-1 Fig 3 Jet Thrust - Relative Velocities

    Force = Mass Acceleration

    Thrust = Mass flow rate of air through Propeller Increase in velocity of the air

    = M (Vj Va)

    Where M = Mass ow rate of the air

    Vj = Velocity of slipstream

    Va = Velocity of the aircraft (TAS)

    This will give the same result as that given by the sum of pressure forces. In the case of the propeller, the air mass flow will belarge, and the increase in velocity given to the air will be fairly small.

    The Jet Engine6. In all cases of the jet engine, a high velocity exhaust gas is produced, the velocity of which, relative to the engine, isconsiderably greater than the TAS. Thrust is produced according to the equation in para 5 ie:

    Thrust = M (Vj Va)

    where Vj is now the velocity of the gas stream at the propelling nozzle (see Fig 3). This represents a simplified version of thefull thrust equation as the majority of thrust produced is a result of the momentum change of the gas stream.

    2-1-1-1 Fig 2 Propeller Thrust

    2-1-1-1 Fig 3 Jet Thrust - Relative Velocities

    DO NOT DISTRIBUTE AP 3456

    Page 4 : Wed Jan 02 02:24:01 2002 Propulsion Theory 2- 1- 1- 1

  • 7. In the rocket engine (Fig 4) the gases which leave the engine are the products of the combustion of the rocket propellantscarried; therefore no intake velocity term Va is required: The simplified version of the equation giving the thrust produced thusbecomes:

    T