Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Frozen Food Packaging ... Tray resin Tree harvest and transport

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Transcript of Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Frozen Food Packaging ... Tray resin Tree harvest and transport

  • Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Frozen Food

    Packaging Systems

    Kevin Li, Adrienne Lewis, Lisa Keaton, Allison Weis, David Scoville,

    Ted Espenschied

  • Overview

    • The goal of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts of two types of packaging used in the frozen entrée industry- Tray-and-Film and Traytite

    • The client for this project was Kurt Naas of A- line Corporation

  • Life Cycle Assessment

    • Tracing the environmental impacts of a product from “cradle to grave”

    • Four steps of an LCA:

    –Goal and scope definition (and redefinition)

    – Inventory analysis

    – Impact assessment

    – Improvement analysis

  • Defining Impacts

    • Raw Materials/Energy Use

    – Water

    – Wood

    – Energy

    • Global Warming

    – CO2 and Methane

    • Eutrophication

    – NH3

    • Acidification

    – SOx and NOx

    • Solid Waste

  • Identifying relevant processes

    • Raw materials acquisition

    • Materials manufacture

    • Production

    • Use/reuse/maintenance

    • Waste management

  • Data Collection

    • Sources of data and process information – Industry experts – Existing LCA reports – Machine manufacturers – EPA websites

    • Limitations and assumptions – Data is unavailable or inaccessible – Process ambiguity – Shared or negligible processes

    • “Cradle to Gate” assessment

  • Traytite® • Solid Bleached Sulfate (SBS) paperboard tray and lid • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) coating

    Tray-and-film • SBS outer carton • PET tray • PET film

  • PHASE 1 Raw Materials Acquisition

    Wood Harvest

    Transport

    Crude Oil Extraction

    Transport

    Tray –and-film Carton Tray

    Photo Sources: Dummit, 2008, http://sprinterusa.com/images/tray2.gif, http://www.baypack.com/cartoners/images/carton_side.gif, http://media.canada.com/cfe7ac49-e090-4323-a853-83766709cd57/shelloilsands_cw_073007.jpg, , http://www.germes-online.com/direct/dbimage/50282392/PET_Plain_Film_For_Thermal_Lamination.jpghttp://www.webstaurantstore.com/images/1262027_lg.jpg, http://wwwtest.enbridge- us.com/uploadedImages/Enbridge_Energy/About_Us/Our_Businesses/Natural_Gas_Segment/Trucking_Services/Dufour-truck.gif

    Traytite

    Tray and Film

    Traytite Film

    Traytite Coating

  • PHASE 2a Materials Manufacture

    Pulping

    Papermaking

    PET Extrusion

    Transport

    PET Resin Production

    Traytite Carton Paperboard

    Tray-and-film Carton Paperbaord

    Transport

    Paperboard plant (International Paper)

    PET resin plant (DuPont)

    Traytite PET coating

    APET for PET tray

    Transport

    Precursor Amorphous PET (APET)

    APET for PET film (in DuPont)

    Wood Petroleum

    Intermediates

    To Paper Conversion Plant

    To Paper PET Packaging Plant

    Photo Sources: Dummit 2008

  • PET Extrusion Printing/Cutting

    Transport

    Thermoforming

    Trim Press

    Transport

    Dryer

    Transport

    Pre-heating

    Folder/gluing

    PET Packaging Plant (Associated Packaging

    Technologies)

    Paper Conversion Plant (Graphic Packaging

    International)

    PET Extrusion

    Dryer

    PHASE 2b Product Fabrication

    PET Plant (DuPont)

    PET Film

    Traytite, Tray-and-film Carton APET APET

    Tray-and-film Carton

    Traytite

    PET Tray

  • Form Traytite

    Fill

    Freeze

    Denester

    Cartoning

    Transport

    Seal

    Seal

    PHASE 2c Filling/Packaging Distribution (Michelina’s)

    MP-HT

    ES-S

    Photo Sources: http://www.aline1.com/products/?productID=61

    To Consumer

  • 0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    Traytite Tray&film

    gr a

    m s/

    p a

    ck ag

    e Raw Materials Consumption

    methanol

    acetic acid

    Ethylene Oxide

    starch

    Paraxylene

    latex binder

    Wood

    •The TrayTite required less raw materials than the Tray-and-Film

    •The consumption of water was the largest component of the raw materials for both product.

    •The second largest resource used was wood used for the paper board of the TrayTite, and the Tray-and-Film carton

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    Traytite Tray&film

    A m

    o u

    n t U

    se d

    ( m

    l)

    Water Use

    Water

    Results

  • Energy use (KJ)

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Traytite Tray&film

    A m

    o u

    n t

    U se

    d (

    kJ )

    Total energy (kJ)

    14% 3%

    3%

    56%

    20%

    1% 2%1%

    Energy Consumption by Process (Traytite) Resin Production (per coating)

    Coating Production

    Tree Harvesting (SBS)

    Pulping (SBS)

    Papermaking (SBS)

    Transportation

    Traytite Forming

    TrayTite Sealing

    2% 0%

    51%

    2%

    30%

    11%

    3% 0% 0%

    0% 1%

    Energy Consumption by Process (Tray- and-Film)

    Resin Production (per film)

    Film Production

    Resin Production (per tray)

    Tree Harvesting (SBS)

    Pulping (SBS)

    Papermaking (SBS)

    Tray Production

    Denesting

    Tray Sealing

    Cartoning

    Transportation

  • 0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    Traytite Tray and Film

    G H

    G e

    m is

    si o

    n s

    (g /p

    ac ka

    ge )

    Global Warming Potential (CO2 Equivalents)

    •The Tray-and-Film emits almost twice as much CO2 Equivalents as the Traytite

    •Even though the breakdown of contributions from product, one process from each stands out clearly as the most

  • Coating resin production

    Coating process

    Tree harvest and transport

    Pulping

    Papermaking

    Transport

    Frozen food plant

    Traytite Global Warming Potential (CO2 Equivalents)

    Film resin Film production

    Tray resin

    Tree harvest and transport

    Pulping

    Papermaking

    Paper conversion Tray

    production

    Frozen food plant

    Transport

    Tray and Film Global Warming Potential (CO2 Equivalents)

    •Pulping involved with SBS paperboard production is the largest contributor for both products

    •The production of the plastic for the tray in the Tray-and-Film design is the main reason why this product has higher greenhouse emissions.

  • 0

    0.0000002

    0.0000004

    0.0000006

    0.0000008

    0.000001

    0.0000012

    Tray and Film Traytite

    A m

    o u

    n t

    o f

    N H

    3 (

    kg )

    Euthrophication Potential

    0

    0.5

    1

    1.5

    Traytite Tray & Film

    Acidification (g/unit)

    SOx

    NOx

    0

    0.0000002

    0.0000004

    0.0000006

    0.0000008

    0.000001

    0.0000012

    Tray Production Film Production

    A m

    o u

    n t

    o f

    N H

    3 (k

    g)

    Eutrophication Potential for Tray- and-Film

  • Conclusions and Recommendations

  • Traytite vs. Tray-and-Film

    • Resource consumption: Traytite

    • Emissions: Traytite

    • Recyclability: Tray and Film

    • A thorough investigation of the two products, including material and energy inputs and emissions suggests that the Traytite package has a smaller impact on the environment than Tray-and-Film.

  • Recommendations

    Category Traytite Tray-and-Film Both

    Paper Use Re-design carton, increase use of recycled fiber

    Water Use Reduced quantity of PET

    Increase process efficiency, paper use, gray water

    Recyclability Alternative Coating Non-black PET

    Solid waste generation

    Reengineer resin production

    Increase internal recycling

    Water Emissions Paperboard

    Air Emissions Reduced paper/fiber use

    Combustion of waste at factory

  • Conclusion

    • The major negative environmental consequences (global warming, eutrophication, and acidification), are more substantial for the tray-and-film product than for the traytite product

    • However, there is less room for improvement in traytite manufacturing and consumption