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  • Water and Sanitation Program: guidance note

    the Water and Sanitation Program is a multi-donor partnership, part of the World Bank groups Water global Practice, supporting poor people in obtaining affordable, safe, and sustainable access to water and sanitation services.

    community Slum Sanitation in india

    a Practitioners guide

    march 2016

  • AcknowledgmentsThe Community Slum Sanitation Practitioners Guide has evolved over the years, and has had the benefit of many contributors at various stages.

    Most importantly, the pioneers the leaders and implementers of these innovative initiatives in different cities who have been extremely patient with repeated queries, and magnanimous with making time for discussions, and for making documents, photos, and other resources available for this Guide.

    These include but are not restricted to:

    Ahmedabad: Bijal Bhatt (MHT, Ahmedabad); and officials from Ahmedabad Municipal CorporationBhopal: Anup Sahai (Aarambh, Bhopal) and officials from Bhopal Municipal Corporation; Kalyani/Kolkata: Shantanu Jha (Former Chairman, and officials from Kalyani Municipal Council); Kamal Kar (CLTS Foundation), Shibani Goswami (KUSP, Kolkata);Mumbai: Rajeev Jalota (AMC, MCGM), Jokin Arputhum, Sheela Patel, Celine DCruz and others (NSDF/SPARC, Mumbai), Anand Jagtap (OSD, SSP, MCGM) and members and officials from Pratha and MCGM; Pune; Pratima Joshi (Shelter Associates, Pune), and officials from Pune Municipal Corporation; andTrichy: D. Damodaran and Geetha Jegan (Gramalaya, Trichy), and officials from Trichy City Corporation.

    In addition, numerous other officers, community leaders and members of organizations, local bodies, and slum communities have contributed to this Guide.

    This work started with the support of the Cities Alliance under the guidance of Junaid Ahmad (World Bank, formerly WSP). Soma Ghosh Moulik (World Bank, formerly WSP), Deepak Sanan (Additional Chief Secretary, Government of Himachal Pradesh, formerly WSP) and Cathy Revels (formerly WSP and World Bank), in discussion with the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India and selected NGO partners (especially Sheela Patel and Celine DCruz of SPARC), had provided the initial conceptualization and direction to a note on how to ensure sanitation services for slum dwellers. Pronita Chakraborti (formerly WSP), Sara Almqvist (formerly WSP), and Vivek Raman (World Bank, formerly WSP) assisted with taking the research efforts forward to develop this further. This work was supported by the Ministry of Urban Development Officers, including M. Rajamani, A.K. Mehta and M. Ramachandran. The Task Team Leader for supervising the development of the Guide has been Joseph Ravi Kumar. Christopher Juan Costain, WSP, provided support and guidance in development of this document. The research and drafting team comprised Meera Bapat, Barkha Goel, Pravin More, Rajiv Raman, and Somnath Sen.

    We would like to thank all the reviewers who took the time to go through draft/s of the Guide, and suggest changes and improvements. Reviewers included Dirk Walther, GIZ; Susmita Sinha, Centre for DEWATS Dissemination; Pete Kolsky, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Raghu Kesavan, World Bank; Shyamal Sarkar, formerly with the World Bank, apart from officers and leaders from the implementing organizations of the initiatives in the cities. The responsibility of all errors and omissions rests with the drafting team.

    The Water and Sanitation Program is a multi-donor partnership, part of the World Bank Groups Water Global Practice, supporting poor people in obtaining affordable, safe, and sustainable access to water and sanitation services. WSPs donors include Australia, Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and the World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed herein are entirely those of the author and should not be attributed to the World Bank or its affiliated organizations, or to members of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

    2015 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group 2015 Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) |


    Table of contentsAbbreviations and Acronyms 3

    Color Indicators 4

    Summary 5

    Section 1: Background and Objectives 13

    Objectives of the Guide 13 Selection of Slum Sanitation Initiatives for the Guide 13 Target Group of the Guide 14

    Section 2: The Urban Sanitation Challenge and the Response 15

    Government Initiatives in Improving Slums 15 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (2005-14) 16 Rajiv Awas Yojana 16 National Urban Sanitation Policy 2008 17 State Sanitation Strategies 17 City Sanitation Plans 17 National Sanitation Rating and Service Level Benchmarking 18 Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) 2014-19 19 Community Toilet Complexes as a Response to the Slum Sanitation Deficit 19

    Section 3: Drivers of Successful Slum Sanitation Initiatives 21

    1. Enabling Frameworks for Slum Sanitation (Tenure and Provision of Services) 21 2. Political Will, Executive Engagement and Local Government Institutional Capacities 25 3. Addressing Indignity and Promoting Public Health 28 4. Promote Participation of Poor and Institutionalize Special Roles for Women 30 5. Choice of Location, Technology Choice and Design Features 33 6. Frameworks for Partnerships and Contracts 38 7. Empower Communities to Take the Responsibility of Managing Community Toilets 40 8. Management Models and Financial Viability as Key Elements for Successful Long-term Operation 43 9. Performance Monitoring and Evaluation 48 10. Integration of Slums with Sustainable Services in City-wide Services 52

    Section 4: Generic Steps for Slum Sanitation Initiatives 54

    A) Preparatory and Planning Stage 55 B) Implementation Stage 58 C) Monitoring and Evaluation Stage 62 D) List of Recommended Reference Material for Practitioners 65

    Selected References 67

  • Community Slum Sanitation in India A Practitioners Guide


    List of FiguresFigure E1: Slum Sanitation Generic Steps 11Figure 1: A Sample MoU 49Figure 2: Slum Sanitation Generic Steps 54Figure 3: Details of the Preparatory and Planning Stage 58Figure 4: Details of the Implementation Stage 62Figure 5: Details of the M&E Stage 65

    List of TablesTable 1: Study Locations for Approaches to Slum Sanitation 13Table 2: Average capital cost per seat: a comparison between Mumbai SSP and Tamil Nadu ISP 37

    List of BoxesBox 1: Slums .Defined 16Box 2: Madhya Pradesh Sanitation Vision 2025 17Box 3: NUSP Emphasizes CSPs to Serve the Urban Poor and Slum Settlements 18Box 4: Public Toilets and Community Toilets 20Box 5: Relevant Definitions 22Box 6: Parivartan Slum Networking Program in Ahmedabad 23Box 7: Bengalurus Experience with Delinking Tenure and Service Provision 25Box 8: KMC Attempts a New Way of Addressing Sanitation 27Box 9: Mobilizing Children around Health and Hygiene Practices 29Box 10: The Tiruchirappalli Initiative 31Box 11: Common Design Deficiencies 34Box 12: A Comparison of the Mumbai and Tiruchirappalli Approaches 35Box 13: Recommendations for Construction 36Box 14: Mumbai SSP Compact Contract 39Box 15: Innovations in Training 42Box 16: The Tiruchirappalli Model 44Box 17: Estimated Daily Operating Surplus in Mumbai SSP 46Box 18: Tiruchirappallis Approach to M&E 50Box 19: Torrent Power AEC leads in Slum Electrification 52


    aec ahmedabad electricity Company LimitedaMc ahmedabad municipal CorporationBPL Below Poverty LineBPMc Bombay Provincial municipal CorporationBSuP Basic Services to the Urban Poor BWSSB Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage

    BoardcBo community based organizationcBHi Community Based Health initiativeci cast ironcSP City Sanitation Plan ct Community toiletctB Community toilet BlockeiS environmental improvement of Slums gi galvanized irongoi government of indiagoM government of maharashtraHV Health Volunteeriec information, education, and

    CommunicationiLcS integrated Low Cost SanitationiSc integrated Sanitary ComplexiSP integrated Sanitation ProjectJnnuRM Jawaharlal nehru national Urban

    renewal missionKMc Kalyani municipal Council (also, Kolkata

    municipal Corporation)KuSP Kolkata Urban Services for the Poor

    ProjectMcgM municipal Corporation of greater mumbaimm millimeterMou memorandum of UnderstandingMHada maharashtra Housing and area

    development authorityMoud ministry of Urban developmentMHuPa ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty

    alleviationM&e monitoring and evaluation

    nBa nirmal Bharat abhiyanngo nongovernmental organizationnL natural Leadernoc no objection CertificatenSSo national Sample Survey organisation nSPd national Slum development Programme nuSP national Urban Sanitation Policy odF open defecation Freeo&M operations and maintenancePMc Pune municipal CorporationPt Public toiletRaY rajiv awas YojanaRcc reinforced cement concreteSBM Swachh Bharat missionSeWa Self-employed Womens associationSHe Sanitation Health educationSHg self-help groupSLB Service Level BenchmarkingSJSRY Swarna Jayanti Shahari rozgar YojanaSnP Slum networking Project SPaRc Society for Promotion of area resource

    CentresSSP Slum Sanitation ProgramSSS State Sanitation Strategytcc trichy City CorporationtnudP tamil nadu Urban development Project uBS Urban Basic ServicesuidSSMt Urban infrastructure development

    Scheme for Small and medium towns uLB Urban Local BodyuSaid United States agency for international

    development ut Union territoryVaMBaY Valmiki ambedkar malin Basti awas

    Yojana WaSH Water, Sanitation and HygieneWatSan Water