Communication approach and culture in the global working1

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Communication approach and culture in the global working

Transcript of Communication approach and culture in the global working1

    • COURSE CODE : CCG 5243
  • Communication Approach and Culture in the Global Working Environment Group Members: Said S.M. Elgaibani Abbas Ramdani Wang Chao Nan
  • Intercultural Communication Concept
    • What is Intercultural communication?
    • Intercultural communication involves
    • interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems are distinct enough to alter communication events
    • ( Porter & Samovar, 2004, p. 15)
  • Intercultural Communication Concept (Cont)
    • Intercultural communication is the information exchange between one person and any other source transmitting a message displaying properties of a culture different to the other receiver s culture (Dahl, 1999)
    • Why it is significant? Cultural diversity make intercultural communication complex and to some extent, impossible
  • Intercultural Communication Principles
    • 1- A shared code system( verbal and nonverbal).
    • 2- different beliefs and behaviors between communicators establish the basis of different assumption from which respond.
    • 3- The level of knowing and accepting beliefs and behaviors of others.
  • What Is Culture?
    • Has different meanings in different contexts
    • Culture is shared learned behavior which is transmitted from one generation to another for the purposes of promoting individual and social survival (Marsella, as cited in Porter & Samovar, 2004)
  • What is Culture? (Cont)
    • Culture is a set of values, beliefs, norms, customs, rules and codes that lead people to define themselves as a distinct group, giving them a sense of community (Adler et al, 2002)
    • Culture is learned = enculturation
    • Culture= international and local
  • Three approaches to study culture
    • 1/ The social science approach : This is the most traditional and is built on the methods assumptions derived from psychology and sociology. It assumed that behavior can be observed, measured and predicted. Here communication is seen influenced by culture, and the primary interest is in describing and comparing cultures.
    • 2/ The interpretive Approach : This approach derives its methods from anthropology and linguistics. It emphasis the objective experience of the individual. Here communication is seen as creating and maintaining culture.
    • 3/ The Critical Approach :The critical approach is primarily concerned with creating change by examining power relationships within cultures. It stresses the importance of social, political, economic and historical contexts and its focus on social rather than individual relations. According to this view , power relationships characterize all intercultural transactions.
  • Summary of culture
  • The Characteristics of culture
    • Culture is learned
    • Enculturation= activity of learning one s culture
    • How do we learn culture?
      • Interactions
      • Observation
      • Imitation
    • Where do we learn cultures?
      • Proverbs
      • Folktales, Legends, Myths
      • Art
      • Mass Media
  • The Characteristics of culture (cont)
    • Culture is transmitted
      • Communication continues culture- values, language, religions etc
    • Culture is based on symbols
      • Various forms- spoken, written, non-verbal
  • The Characteristics of culture (cont)
    • Culture is dynamic
      • Innovation
      • Diffusion
      • Acculturation
    • Culture is an integrated system
      • Cultural elements are interrelated
      • One element will affect another in a culture
    • Hofstede s Value dimensions
      • Power distance
      • Uncertainty avoidance
      • Individualism/collectivism
      • Masculinity/femininity
      • Long term/short term orientation
    • Hall s High and Low context
  • Hofstede s value dimensions
    • Explores thinking and social action differences among members of more than 50 nations
    • Classified each country (1-50) of the five value dimensions
    • The rankings offer values and comparisons across cultures
  • Individualism/Collectivism Individualism Collectivism
    • Stress on individuals
    • Independent self
    • Reward individual achievement
    • Value individual uniqueness
    • Eg: United States, Australia, Great Britain, Canada & New Zealand
    • Emphasize on in-groups
    • Interdependent
    • Reward on groups
    • Share in-group beliefs
    • Eg: Pakistan, Venezuela, Colombia, Taiwan, Peru & Africa
  • Power Distance High Power Distance
    • Do not share power
    • People are not equal
    • Social hierarchy to show inequality
    • Emphasize on status and rank
    • Eg: India, Africa, Brazil, Singapore, Greece, Venezuela, Mexico and the Philippines
    Low power distance
    • Minimize power
    • People have access to power
    • Hierarchy to show roles inequality
    • Superiors look less powerful
    • Eg: Austria, Finland. Denmark, Norway, United States, New Zealand & Israel
  • Masculinity/Femininity Masculinity
    • Dominant values are male oriented
    • Expect men to be assertive, ambitious, competitive
    • Eg: Ireland, the Philippines, Greece, Venezuela, Austria, Japan, Italy & Mexico
    • Nurturing roles
    • Promote sexual equality
    • Eg: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark & the Netherlands
  • Uncertainty Avoidance High Uncertainty Avoidance
    • Avoid uncertainties & ambiguities
    • More formal rules
    • Do not tolerate deviant ideas/behaviors
    • Seek Consensus
    • Believe in absolute truths/ expertise
    • Eg: Portugal, Greece, Peru, Belgium & Japan
    • Accept uncertainties
    • Few rules
    • Tolerate the unusual
    • Dislike hierarchy
    • Depend on themselves rather than experts
    • Eg: Sweden, Denmark, Ireland, Norway, US, Finland & Netherlands
    Low Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Long term/Short term orientation Long term orientation
    • Strong work ethic
    • Show great respect to employers
    • Value social order & long range goals
    • Eg: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan & South Korea
    Short Term orientation
    • Deemphasize high status
    • Postpone old age
    • Short term results
    • Immediate needs
    • E.g: United states, Great Britain, Canada & The Philippines
  • Hall s High and Low context High Context Low context
    • Most meanings come from context, not from words
    • People are homogenous
    • Communication through gestures, silence & space (non-verbal communication)
    • Eg: Native Americans, Japanese, Arab, Chinese & Korean
    People are less homogenous Most meanings come from verbal message Communication through spoken words Eg: German, Swiss, Scandinavian & North American
  • Potential problems in intercultural communication
    • Similarities vs. differences
      • Most people seek for others with whom they have (habits, looks, behaviors)
      • The tendency to seek similarities excludes differences
    • Withdrawal
      • Avoiding face-to-face interactions
      • Detached and isolated