Collaborators Office of Early Learning NC DPI ESL Staff Johnston County Schools FPG...
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Slide 2 Collaborators Office of Early Learning NC DPI ESL Staff Johnston County Schools FPG Child Development Institute Expert Presenters Cristina Gillanders and Dina Castro Slide 3 About terms we use Why is it important to promote oral language in dual language learners? How do children become bilingual? Developmental sequence of second language acquisition Strategies for promoting oral language development in young dual language learners Slide 4 Limited English proficient? Second language learner? English language learner? Bilingual? Dual language learner? Slide 5 Relation between childrens language development and reading success Dual language learners performing below non- Hispanics white in reading by fourth and eight grade. This suggests that DLLs early performance in oral language development, both in English and their home language, have important consequences for their later reading achievement Slide 6 First-language skills transfer and support the learning of a second language. The extent of cross-linguistic relationships among bilingual children from different language groups depends on the relation between languages and their writing systems. It helps establish a strong cultural identity, to develop and sustain ties with immediate and extended families. Knowing more than one language has personal, social, cognitive, and economic advantages. Slide 7 Types of bilingualism - Simultaneous and sequential Degrees of bilingualism - Balanced Partial Receptive bilinguals Slide 8 DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION StageExamples of Childs Behavior I. Use of Home Language Uses home language with English-speaking peers and teachers. II. Nonverbal / Observational Period Remains silent when interacting with teacher and peers. Uses non-verbal gestures to request help. III. Telegraphic Speech Uses one to three words in English to describe situation. IV. Formulaic Speech Uses expressions such as I dont know, lookit or fall down. V. Productive Speech Combines vocabulary and phrases already known into new sentences. Can maintain a conversation with an adult or child taking three to four turns. Tabors, P. O. (1997) One child, two languages: A guide for preschool educators of children learning English as a second language. Baltimore: Paul Brookes Slide 9 Teachers need to maximize childrens comprehension of instruction and content. Promote opportunities to learn new words and phrases. Instruction needs to accommodate to childrens stage of second language acquisition. Slide 10 StageStrategies Home Language Children use home language with English speaking peers and teachers. Often they will appear oblivious to the new language because the language spoken by adults and other children is inaccessible or incomprehensible to them. o Learn phrases in childrens home language. o Talk about the here and now, and keep a consistent classroom routine. o Think aloud what you are doing. o Incorporate assistant or volunteer who speaks childs home language. o Use visual and physical aids. o Do not require children to generate English spontaneously or individually. Slide 11 StageStrategies Non-verbal / Observational Children remain silent when interacting with teacher and peers. They use nonverbal gestures to request help. Children will become quiet, and will observe and listen intensively as the new language is used in different activities. o Encourage children to Echo or repeat what they hear. o Model instructions with gestures and by showing children what they are being asked to do. o Expand childrens limited communication by building on what they say. o Give children words or phrases that can help them communicate important messages. o Show the end result of projects children will be asked to do. Slide 12 StageStrategies Telegraphic Use one to three words in English to describe situation. o Repeat phrases several times. Associate familiar language patterns with particular routines or lesson segments. o Model targeted chunks of language using puppets. Puppetry is an effective strategy to reach shy children, and to encourage dual language learners to use their new language in a non-threatening environment. Slide 13 StageStrategies Formulaic Children use memorized phrases (e.g., I dont know, lets go), and combine them into new sentences. They may appear more proficient than what they are. o Expand on the vocabulary the child already knows. o Use inquiry to promote questions and conversations among children. o Request clarification to extend childrens use of known phrases. o Promote feedback to encourage, interpret, and evaluate. Add a little more as you go (Additive). o Negotiate meaning with concrete cues. Slide 14 StageStrategies Productive Children begin creating original sentences. They may combine grammatical structures from home language with new vocabulary in English. o Use communicative opportunities to expand childrens talking skills. o Talk about stories. Use conversation as a way to promote oral language. o Use bilingual songs and poetry using physical movement as a way to promote vocabulary development, and comprehension. Slide 15 Have you been in a place where most people talked in a language that you did not understand? Slide 16 What did you do to communicate? a) I made gestures b) I spoke louder c) I spoke slower in my language d) I made a picture Slide 17 Did someone help you understand or communicate? What did this person do to help you? A) Show you how to do something B) Speak slower C) Repeat words D) Show you pictures E) Use a few words in your language Slide 18 Strategic use of the home language Use the home language in the environment, Encourage children attempts to respond even if they respond in their home language Use of the home language for purposes other than solely discipline Learn phrases in childrens home language Obtain books in the home language Slide 19 Use manipulatives, gestures, facial expressions and pictures Repeat words and phrases Encourage other children who are at more advance stages of SLA to act as interpreters Demonstrate consistency in the organization of classroom activities Slide 20 Reading aloud is one of the key activities to promote oral language and literacy development in young children. Vocabulary development is crucial for reading comprehension. Since dual language learners are learning two languages they often have smaller vocabularies than monolingual children, although they eventually catch up given the appropriate language environment. Slide 21 Requires a combination of direct teaching and learning words in everyday routines Children can learn new words in read alouds when they are actively engaged Maximize opportunities to understand the text Provide multiple opportunities to learn a new word Slide 22 Those of you who are teachers and teach young DLLs, what have you observed in the DLLs behavior when you are reading aloud a storybook ? a) Children are distracted b) Children are silent c) Children show disruptive behavior d) Children are actively engaged Slide 23 How can I ensure that the DLLs can understand the reading aloud session? What new words or phrases do I want the children to learn? How will I ensure that the children can actively participate in the reading aloud session? Slide 24 Use home language Use manipulatives Read the story several times during the week Incorporate culturally relevant and familiar thematic units Provide a child friendly definition of new words Slide 25 Choose a limited set of core words and a phrase that are essential for understanding the story Choose words that are frequently used in books In small groups make explicit efforts to teach words Slide 26 Stage of English Acquisition Ways in which children can participate Home language Show a picture of the word in English, ask the child to say the word in the home language Non verbal Ask the child to point to a picture of the word Telegraphic/Formulaic Ask children to repeat phrases of the text Productive Ask children open ended questions Slide 27 1. Ask questions to expand the childrens understanding 2. Ask children to repeat the word aloud 3. Provide an explanation of the word 4. Provide examples of the word in different contexts 5. Provide opportunities for the children to demonstrate their understanding of the word 6. Ask the children to repeat the word aloud (Beck et al.,2002) Slide 28 REMEMBER Young dual language learners must learn not only new language skills but also new social skills and cultural values. Draw on the linguistic, cultural and personal experiences of the children when planning classroom activities. Partner with families. Be sensitive to individual differences. Bilingualism is not a liability!! On the contrary, it benefits childrens development and can give them better opportunities for the future. Slide 29 The content of this presentation is part of the Nuestros Nios Professional Development Program at FPG Child Development Institute Slide 30 Resources Center of Early Care and Education Research-DLL: http://cecerdll.fpg.unc.edu/ http://cecerdll.fpg.unc.edu/ Nuestros Nios: http://nnrp.fpg.unc.edu/http://nnrp.fpg.unc.edu/ New Voices ~ Nuevas Voces: http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~nv/index.cfm http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~nv/index.cfm FirstSchool: http://www.firstschool.us/http://www.firstschool.us/ Storybook Reading for Young Dual Language Learners: www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/201101/GillandersOnline_0111.pdf www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/201101/GillandersOnline_0111.pdf WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards: http://wida.wceruw.org/index.aspx http://wida.wceruw.org/index.aspx WIDA Can Do Descriptors booklet for PreK-K: http://www.wida.us/standards/CAN_DOs/Booklet_PreK-K.pdf http://www.wida.us/standards/CAN_DOs/Booklet_PreK-K.pdf WIDA Can Do Descriptors booklet for Grade 1-2 : http://wida.wceruw.org/standards/CAN_DOs/Booklet1-2.pdf