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  • 1

    Collaborative Research to Advance Bioplastics

    Developing Higher Value Bioplastic Applications

  • 2

    Overview

    NatureWorks Overview

    The value of Ingeo

    biopolymers

    Growth in durable applications

    Opportunity to differentiate

    Injection molding with Ingeo

    biopolymers

    Ingeo

    3251D

    Ingeo

    3801X

    Development through collaboration

  • 3

    NatureWorks LLC

    Established in 1997

    Wholly owned by Cargill

    Major investment in technology and infrastructure

    Capacity expansion completed in July 2009 (300 million pound annual capacity)

    Ingeo

    the leading biopolymer in the market place

  • 4

    What are Bioplastics?

    Bioplastics

    Some are of bio-based /

    agricultural origin.

    Some are compostable.

  • 5

    Some are of bio-based /

    agricultural origin.

    What are Bioplastics?

    Some are compostable.

    Both Bio-based

    and Compostable

    Both Bio-based

    and Compostable

    Giving retailers and brand owners a dual value

    proposition around sustainability.

    Giving retailers and brand owners a dual value

    proposition around sustainability.

    is:

  • 6

    EnvironmentalReduced footprint

    Performance

    All natural originsAnnually renewablePure innovation

    Brand differentiatorEnables consumer choiceFeels rightSupports consumer values and beliefs

    Emotional

    68% less fossil energy use80-90% less greenhouse gasesMade from plants not oilEnvironmental leadership Validated LCA, eco profileNew after-use options

    Foundation of the Ingeo Value Proposition

    Clarity and opticsForm and stiffnessUV StableNon-allergenicPrintabilityAbility to light-weight

  • 7

    Greenhouse Gases

    138

    120

    113

    80

    77

    73

    59

    50

    42

    35

    8782

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    PS (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT (current tech)

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [MJ / kg polymer]

    138

    120

    113

    80

    77

    73

    59

    50

    42

    35

    8782

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    PS (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT (current tech)

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [MJ / kg polymer]

    -50%Improving Eco-Profile: Non-renewable energy useImproving Eco-Profile: Greenhouse Gases

    Non-renewable energy use

    7.9

    9.1

    7.6

    3.2

    2.1

    1.9

    1.9

    2.0

    1.3

    0.8

    3.4

    3.4

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    Polystyrene (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [kg CO2 eq. / kg polymer]

    7.9

    9.1

    7.6

    3.2

    2.1

    1.9

    1.9

    2.0

    1.3

    0.8

    3.4

    3.4

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    Polystyrene (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [kg CO2 eq. / kg polymer]

    -60%

    Continuous improvement processIngeo 2005 Ingeo 2009 Ingeo target

    138

    120

    113

    80

    77

    73

    59

    50

    42

    35

    8782

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    PS (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT (current tech)

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [MJ / kg polymer]

    138

    120

    113

    80

    77

    73

    59

    50

    42

    35

    8782

    0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    PS (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT (current tech)

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [MJ / kg polymer]

    -50%

    Non-renewable energy use

    Improving Eco-Profile:

    EnvironmentalReduce footprint

    7.9

    9.1

    7.6

    3.2

    2.1

    1.9

    1.9

    2.0

    1.3

    0.8

    3.4

    3.4

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    Polystyrene (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [kg CO2 eq. / kg polymer]

    7.9

    9.1

    7.6

    3.2

    2.1

    1.9

    1.9

    2.0

    1.3

    0.8

    3.4

    3.4

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    Nylon 66

    Nylon 6

    Polycarbonate

    Polystyrene (HIPS/GPPS Avg)

    PET (SSP)

    PET (amorphous)

    LD Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    PVC (suspension)

    Ingeo 2005

    Ingeo 2009 CIT

    Ingeo Target

    From cradle to polymer factory gate [kg CO2 eq. / kg polymer]

    -60%

    Greenhouse Gases

  • 8

    Disposables

    Semi-durables

    Durables

    Vision for end markets

  • 9

    iTunes Gift Cards from Ingeo

  • 10

    And Brands are responding to the challenge

    Mako

    Desk top accessories

    Cargo

    Lipstick

    Leoplast

    Lipstick &

    compacts

    Quickpoint

    Promotional

    mugs

    BIC

    Razor handles

    Stilolinea -

    Pens

  • 11

    Performance in new durables applications

    Telecom ItaliaIngeo housing for

    Cordless phone

    Toyota PriusIngeo Floor

    mats

    Open NewMarkets

    SamsungIngeo Cell Phone Casing

    Ingeo in Cargo Cosmetics

  • 12

    .in even more demanding products

    Fujitsu

    Laptop

    Sony

    Walkman, DVD player

    Sony-

    Erickson

    Cell phone

    Toyota

    Prius

    spare tire, mat

    Toyota -

    Floor mat for third- generation Prius

    NEC-

    Mobile phone housing

    Nokia

    Mobile phone housing

  • 13

    Ingeo innovations transform injection molded parts from a functional commodity cost item to a

    differentiable marketing feature

    Critical to message appropriately and responsibly. Claims need to be well founded on good science

    around recognized standards

  • 14

    DisposablesNeat Ingeo Resins

    DurablesIngeo Blends

    3251D (High Flow)

    GPPS

    HIPSSAN

    ABS

    PC/ABS

    PC

    Value

    Per

    form

    ance

    PP comp3801D Formulation (High Heat,

    High Impact)

    PET

  • 15

    Challenges to meet demanding semi-durable and durable injection molding applications for PLA

    Heat resistance of amorphous PLA is not high enough for sea container, auto interior or trunk environments (~65C required)

    Solution space 1: Blends of Ingeo with other thermoplastics offers biocontent

    advantages, and property versatility of second polymer

    Solution space 2: Heat resistance of crystalline PLA can be high enough for shipping and storage, but production cycle time is historically very slow

    PLA demonstrates limited shear-thinning behavior and is shear-sensitive

  • 16

    Challenges continued...

    Toughness / impact resistance of un-oriented, injection molded PLA is low

    Useful life of product must be demonstrated

    Complex mixtures of additives can lead to chemical and / or physical interactions

    Additional product requirements (e.g. color, flame resistance, mold release) demand further ingredients

  • 17

    Ingeo 3251D Injection Molding Grade

    Neat IM grade

    Compostable

    ASTM 6400, BPI Certified

    Good processability

    For clear or opaque semi durable applications

    Where heat requirements are no more than 120-130F

    (55C)

    Replacing incumbent styrenics

    (GPPS, HIPS, SAN);

    Impact somewhat better than GPPS

    can be improved with impact modifiers

    Use of low shrinkage molds (PS, SAN, ABS

    0.004 in/in)

    Potential to down gage GPPS or SAN

    Replacing PP

    PP density difference

    PP molds might require modifications

    Could potentially down gauge due to higher stiffness

    Higher flow allows for better mold-fill characteristics

  • 18

    Collaboration leads to rapid development with 3801X

    Additive Suppliers

    Compounders

    Academia

    NatureWorks

    Converters

    Brand-owners

  • 19

    NatureWorks motivation and approach

    Understand the performance of additives in crystalline PLA solution space for injection molding

    Make recommendations

    Enable new applications and volume growth

    Demonstrate a set of target properties

    Notched Izod impact of > 2.0 ft*lb/in

    HDT targets

    65C = No distortion in shipping, auto interiors or trunks

    100C = Demonstration of high temp usefulness

    Injection molding cycle time of