Cognac 6347

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Transcript of Cognac 6347

Cng ngh sn xut ru CONAC

Chng I:

QU TRNH HNH THNH V PHT TRIN RU COGNAC.

R

u xut hin trong i sng ca con ngi t khi no v ai l ngi pht minh ra th ung vn minh ny? C l kh m xc nh mt cch chnh xc, ch bit rng, t c ch kim v mi sau ny, ru s lun l sn phm khng th thiu i vi loi ngi. Ngy nay, nn cng nghip sn xut ru trn th gii t n trnh siu vit. Tuy nhin, c nhng loi ru c sn xut theo phng php truyn thng vn mi mi khng nh v chnh t nhng dng sn phm ny, t thng hiu ca chng, to thnh nhng vng vn ho ni ting Trung Quc c loi ru Mao i xut x t mt lng qu m ngi ta bit n ch khi thng qua loi ru ni ting trn. Cng tng t, Vit Nam c ru lng Vn, ru Mu Sn hay ru Bu ... khi nhc ti th n khng cn l nhng a danh n thun, m chnh l ni ti c mt vng vn ho. Cognac l mt loi ru ca nc Php tr thnh tn gi chung ca mt th ru mnh c hng v c bit. Ni n ngi Php l ngi ta ngh n ru Cognac, cng nh ni n ngi Anh l ni ti ru Whisky. T thng hiu Cognac to nn mt din mo x hi v vn ho cho c mt vng Ty Nam rng ln ca nc Php. Thc ra, cho n th k XVII, ru Cognac vn ch l mt trong hng trm th ru bnh thng khc. Cognac l tn mt ngi lng thuc vng Charente, min Ty Nam nc Php, cng ging nh nhng vng qu khc nh Mdoc, Bourgogne, Porto hay Champagne... l nhng ni ni ting v trng nho v sn xut nhiu loi ru t nho. Nhng trong mt s ti liu vit v ti nguyn ca lng Cognac t nm 1560, li khng h nhc ti mt th ru no c sn xut ti y. Mi n u th k XVII, vng Charente mi tr thnh ni cung cp ru cn thng xuyn, mc d vic bun bn loi sn phm ny tng xut hin t nm 1549. Cho n th k XVIII th ru cn vng Cognac mi c nhiu ni bit n v bt c mt gia nh nng dn trung lu no cng bit nu ru, nhng nh bun th tha h la chn cc loi sn phm. Thi , ru Cognac l mt th ru mnh c lm t qu nho. Ngi ta nho ln men v chng ct c mt th ru c nng cao, c tnh u vit hn cc loi ru c chng ct t ng cc nh Vodka ca ngi Nga hay Sochiu ca ngi Nht Bn. Hn na, so vi ru vang (vin) lm bng qu nho ln men khng cn chng ct v so vi bia lm t i mch, th ru Cognac li c u th l th tch nh hn, v ngi ta ch c th ung ru Cognac vi mt lng t hn nhiu so vi bia hay ru vang v phi t 8-10 nm thng ru vang mi ct c mt thng ru mnh Cognac.

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GVHD: ng Th Ngc Dung

Thi , ngi H Lan gi ru vng Cognac l ru chng ct(brandevin) m theo cc thy thuc th n c tc dng ngn nga bnh ph thng khi i bin nhiu ngy v chng cc bnh nhit i. H Lan l nc chu u u tin c nhu cu tiu th ln loi ru Cognac, v H Lan c nhiu thu th ni ting v h i khp th gii thi by gi. u nhng nm 1640, mi nm, vng Cognac bn c t 3.000-4.000 thng ru. Nm 1643 cng ty xut khu ru cn u tin ca nc Php c thnh lp v pht trin cho n ngy nay, di tn gi Augier. Hin nay cng ty ny c tr s ti vng Cognac v ch bn cc loi ru rt lu nm, vi s lng t mang nhn hiu Mumn. Trong th k XVII, khng phi ch c vng Cognac sn xut ru, m c min Ty Nam Charente sn xut cc loi ru mnh bn cho ngi H Lan. Do m c vng ny u chuyn sang trng nho, to nn mt s chuyn dch kinh t ln v mt din mo mi cho vng Charente. Nu trc kia, ru c chuyn ch bng ng thu, th nay, n c ch bng ng b n thng Paris. Vo khong nhng nm t 1730 n 1780 cc nh bun mi ngh n vic ct gi li ru lu nm nng cao tui. Vic ct gi ru do nhng ch trang tri thc hin. Cc nh bun lc ny khng u t vo trng nho na, m ch i nm ru ca cc h nng dn trng nho v ru a ra bn cc phin ch hng tun vng Cognac, Jarnac hay Chteauneuf. Khi , cc nh bun mi lm cng vic nng cao cht lng ca cc loi ru, nh s gip ca cc ch hm ru. Vo khong t u th k XVII n th k XVIII cc nh bun hu ht l ngi Php, n nm 1718 mi c hng Delamain n t Ai-r-len, hay Martell n t Anh. n na u th k 18 mi ni ln nhng dng h nh Rmy Martin v nht l Hennesy n t Ai-r-len nm 1763. Cui th k XVIII, nc Php c nhng bin ng ln v tnh hnh chnh tr v khng hong v kinh t, nhng s pht trin ca ru Cognac vn khng b lu m. Chnh trong thi k bin ng ca Cch mng Php m James Hennesy a doanh nghip ca mnh ln hng u. Trong nhng nh sn xut dng ru Cognac, ch c nh Martell mi cnh tranh ni. Gia th k XIX l thi k bng n ca dng ru Cognac. Vo cui nhng nm 1840, ngi ta bt u bn ru bng chai ch khng dng thng 375 lt nh trc na. Sau nm 1870 th ru ng chai tr thnh ph bin v khi , ru mi c dn nhn hiu bit xut x t vng Cognac, phn bit vi cc loi ru khc. Trong vic ny, hai nh Hennesy v Martell l nhng ngi i u v ru ng chai vn chuyn tn km hn nn cc hng khc phi mi v sau mi theo kp c. Sau khi ru Cognac c dn nhn phn bit xut x, hng Hennesy mi ngh ra h thng sao gip cho ngi tiu dng c mt tiu chun nh gi tui ca ru. Nm 1865, Maurice Hennesy trong khi nhn nhng m sao trn ca s phng lm vic ca mnh, ngh ra cch dng hnh nh ngi sao nh du ru. C mt sao tc l ch ru Cognac ng chai c hai nm v hai sao l ng chai c bn nm, ba sao l su nm... i vi ru lu trong thng qu su nm th ng dng nhng k t c v b sung thm mt s k t mi nh VOP l Very old pale (ru rt c) pale l tn gi ca

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Cng ngh sn xut ru CONAC

ngi Anh, ch Cognac hi mi hnh thnh, v lc ru c mu trong sut nn gi l ru nht nht (pale) ; VSOP l Very superior old pale (ru cao cp rt c); XO l Extra old (siu c); VVSOP l Very very superior old pale (ru cao cp rt rt c); Ri cn c cc loi nh Reserve v Grande reserve ( dnh v dnh lu), nhng k t sau cng li dng ting Php. Trong chin tranh th gii th I v th II, cng vic sn xut ru Cognac b gim st, do chin tranh v vic trng nho b iu ng v dch bnh, nhiu hng sn xut b ph sn, ch c nhng hng ln mi tr vng... Sau th chin th II, vic sn xut ru Cognac c phc hi v pht trin tr li. Hin nay, ru Cognac chim mt khi lng ln trn th trng ru th gii v chim t trng ln trong tng gi tr xut khu ca nc Php. Khch hng chnh ca ru Cognac l cc nc Chu u (nm 2001 mua tng ng 70,6 triu chai), M (43,1 triu chai) v Chu (21,4 triu chai). Hin ti, Php c 4 hng ln nm 80% s lng ru Cognac bn ra l Hennesy, Remy-Martin, Martell v Courvoisier. Bn cnh , cn c khong 450 nh sn xut khc, ch yu sng nh vo nhng nhn hiu c. Trong sut 4 th k qua, s pht trin ca ru Cognac nho nn li mt vng t, lm thay i c cu cy trng v cnh quan, to ra mt x hi c nn vn ha ring bit cho min Ty Nam nc Php, vi nhng nghi thc v qui tc sng ring bit ca n. Ru Cognac nui sng c mt lot ngh nghip, trong c nhng ngi chng ct ru, nng dn trng nho v mt s ng nhng nh bun cc thnh ph trung tm sn xut ra dng ru ny Ru Cognac.

H nh 1: Cc vng trng nho

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GVHD: ng Th Ngc Dung

Chng II:

PHN LOI RU. Mt cch tng i, ngi ta xp loi:- Nhm sn phm ru ung thp : c hm lng etanol t 1025 %V. - Nhm sn phm ru ung trung bnh: c hm lng etanol t 2535 %V. - Nhm sn phm ru ung cao : c hm lng etanol t 3545 %V. Gia ba loi sn phm ru ung ny mang c th cng ngh khng ging nhau: Vi sn phm ru ung thp : c th cng ngh y l sn phm bt buc phi qua khu ln men, sau c th iu chnh (bng cch phi ch) nhng thnh phn khc b sung nh ng, acid thc phm, cn etylic tinh ch nh hnh mt sn phm theo yu cu. Vi sn phm ru ung trung bnh: c th cng ngh y l sn phm c nh hnh vi cng thc phi trn c n nh trc, t nhng cu t ch yu: cn tinh ch, nc mm, ng, acid hu c thc phm v mt s ph gia nh mu, hng c trng cho tn gi ca sn phm , v d nh ru cam, ru c ph Vi sn phm ru ung cao : s c trnh by phn sau.

H nh 2 : Coganc Frapin VSOP

trang4

Cng ngh sn xut ru CONAC

Chng II:

T

NM MEN DNG TRONG SN XUT RU VANG.

rong sn xut ru vang, thng s dng nhng nm men ca loi saccharomyces ellipsoideus (Hansen ) v saccharomyces oriformis Men thuc ngnh nm, lp nm ti (Ascomyces ). Men phn hu ng, bin glucose thnh cn etylic v kh cacbonic, c nng lng hot ng. Theo phn loi mi, c t nht 36 loi men sn sinh ra bo t, hp thnh 8 chi,trong ph bin nht l chi Saccharomyces. Ging men s dng ch yu l cc chng ca nm men Saccharomyces cere- visiae, men p cha trung bnh 75 % nc v 25 % cht kh.

Thnh phn ha hc v dinh dng ca nm men:Protit: 30-50 %, trung bnh 40 % Glucid: 24-40%, trung bnh 30% Cht bo: 2-5%, trung bnh 4% Cht khong: 5-11%, trung bnh 9% * Glucid : Ca nm men ch yu l glucogen (C6H10O5)n, y l cht d tr ca t bo.Theo thnh phn cu to th glucogen H nh 3: Saccharomyces ging nh amylopectin nhng khc l khi cerevisiae lng phn t ln hn. Hm lng ca n trong t bo nm men c th t 0 n 40% v tu thuc vo mi trng dinh dng. * Protit: Cha trong nm men ru thng vo khong 35 n 40 % v c cc acid amin khng thay th c.V gi tr dinh dng th protit nm men tng ng protit ng vt nhng gi tr hn protit thc vt. nhit cao v bnh thng, di tc dng ca proteaza c sn trong nm men, protit s bin thnh pepton,peptit v acid amin. * Cht bo: L thc n d tr ca nm men v cha ch yuHnh 4: S. Ellipsoideus hm trong nguyn sinh cht, lng khong 2 n 5% khi lng cht kh. * Cht khong: Chim t 5 n 11%.Tuy t nhng ng vai tr quan trng trong hot ng ca t bo nm men, c bit l Photpho thng dng lin kt hu c v c trong thnh phn ca Photphatit, Nucleoprotit cng nh acid nucleic.Trong t bo nm men cn cha cc ion Kali,Canxi, Lu hunh,v acid siliic.Lu hunh v St tham gia phn ng oxi ho kh,Canxi gip loi b cc cht c thi ra khi

ln men, ng thi gip tng hp protit, lm tng qu trnh oxy ho v c tc dng to thnh mt s vitamin.trang5

GVHD: ng Th Ngc Dung

* Trong iu kin sn xut ru, ngun thc n ca nm men nh glucid v cht khong thng c sn v trong mi trng.Ring ngun Nit tng khng v vy mun ln men tt cn cho thm vo dch ln men mt lng nit t 0.15 n 0.2 g/l. Nu thiu lng Nit nm men s pht trin chm, thi gian ln men ko di, hiu sut ln men gim. B ng 1: Bng so snh ni ca nm men ng c trong ng khng nc nho(g/l) ng b ru etylic to c (% v) Kl.apiculata 180 156 172 128 148 77.8 69.0 82.5 45.0 44.0 102.2 87.0 89.5 89.5 104.0 S.pastrianus 180 156 172 128 148 29.0 18.0 15.4 0.0 0.0 151.0 131.0 156.6 128.0 148.0 S.ellipsoideus 180 156 172 128 148 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 180 156 172 128 148 10.2 8.75 9.85 7.35 8.40 17.60 17.85 17.47 17.40 17.60 7.50 6.80 6.80 6.35 7.50 20.10 20.30 20.05 20.10 19.60 4.08 3.75 4.30 4.00 4.70 21.30 23.20 20.80 20.75 22.10 Lng ng tiu hao cho 1% v etanol

b ln men(g/l) ln men (g/l)

Trong sn xut ru vang, thng s dng nhng nm men ca loisaccharomyces (Osterqalder). ellipsoideus (Hansen) v saccharomyces oriformistrang6

Cng ngh sn xut ru CONAC

I. Saccharomyces ellpsoideus.Hansen nghin cu v phn lp c nhng loi nm men ru vang v nm

men bia. C s ng phn bit chng l s khc nhau v hnh dng ca cc t bo. c trng