Classical Greece Outcome: Alexander the Great & Hellenistic Culture

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Transcript of Classical Greece Outcome: Alexander the Great & Hellenistic Culture

  • Slide 1
  • Classical Greece Outcome: Alexander the Great & Hellenistic Culture
  • Slide 2
  • Alexander the Great 1. Setting the Stage: Macedonia a. Located north of Greece, Macedonia had a rough terrain and cold climate b. People lived in mountain villages instead of city-states c. Many Macedonians though of themselves as Greeks, however d. The Greeks looked down upon them as uncivilized foreigners
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  • Philip II of Macedonia
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  • Philip II 2. Philip II of Macedonia a. Philip II became king of Macedonia in 359 B.C. at age 23 b. Trained rugged peasants into a professional army which consisted of: i. Phalanx ( 16 x 16 men) ii. Each soldier carried an 18 foot pike iii. Fast moving cavalry (soldiers on horseback) c. Philip invades Greece, but not to destroy or enslave the Greeks
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  • Philip II d. Battle of Chaeronea: i. Athens & Thebes joined forces to fight Philips army ii. Philips army is too powerful and defeats the Greeks iii. Ends Greek independence ; Philip controls Greece iv. Philip next sets out to defeat the mighty Persian Empire but wont v. Philip stabbed to death in 336 B.C. at his daughters wedding
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  • Oliver Stones Alexander
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  • Alexander the Great
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  • 3. Alexander the Great a. Background i. Takes over at age 20 after the death of his father Philip II ii. Taught by Aristotle : learned science, geography & literature iii. Enjoyed Homers description of the heroic deeds of Achilles during the Trojan Wars iv. Killed 6,000 Thebans in a rebellion; cruelty frightened Greeks into accepting Alexander as their leader
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  • Alexander the Great b. How Alexander defeats the Persians i. Philip wanted to conquer Persia, never had the chance ii. Alexander leads 35,000 troops into Anatolia ( Turkey ) iii. Met 40,000 Persians at Granicus River, Alexanders army attacks first and is victorious iv. Darius III responds with army of 50,000 - 75,000 v. Macedonians break through weak point, Darius III flees vi. Result: Alexander has control of Anatolia
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  • Alexander the Great c. Persia: Egypt i. 332 B.C. Alexander marches into Persian controlled Egypt ii. Welcomed by the Egyptians as a liberator, crowned pharaoh iii. Result: Alexander has control of Egypt
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  • Alexander the Great d. Persia: Mesopotamia i. Battle of Gaugamela: 250,000 Persians under Darius III ii. Alexander launched a massive phalanx attack followed by a cavalry charge and the Persian lines crumbled iii. Again Darius III flees in battle iv. Result: Alexander has control of all of the Persian Empire!!
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  • Alexanders Empire
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  • Alexander the Great e. Other Conquests i. Travels east to India - finds out Darius III was murdered ii. Soldiers exhausted - 11 years, 11,000 miles- turn back home
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  • Alexander the Great iii. Alexander dies from illness at age of 32, very young
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  • Alexander the Great 4. Legacy a. Now what? i. Empire broken into 3 main territories ii. Would last for centuries
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  • Hellenism b. Hellenism i. Hellenistic Culture: blending of Egyptian, Persian, Greek and Indian influences ii. Would forever transform Greece and Asia
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  • The Economy of the Hellenistic World
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  • Hellenism c. Alexandria i. Center for trade ii. 350 ft light house - first ever iii. Library with 250,000 scrolls ; learning becomes a commodity
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  • Hellenism d. Science and Technology i. Euclid : book The Elements became basis for geometry ii. Archimedes : accurately estimated Pi ( 3.14 ) iii. Hero : used steam power
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  • Alexander the Great Result: Through Philip IIs and Alexanders conquests of the Greeks, Egyptians, & Persians, ideas would spread and cultures would combine in a way that had never been seen before. After Alexanders death, the Greek Civilization would gradually decline until many of their achievements and ideas would be absorbed into perhaps the greatest example of Hellenism in history: The Roman Empire.
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  • Hellenistic Philosophers Cynics Diogenes ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries. citizens of the world. live a humble, simple life. Epicurians Epicurus avoid pain & seek pleasure. all excess leads to pain! politics should be avoided.
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  • Hellenistic Philosophers Stoics Zeno nature is the expansion of divine will. concept of natural law. get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all. true happiness is found in great achievements.
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  • Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences Scientists / Mathematicians: Aristarchus heliocentric theory. Euclid geometry Archimedes pulley Hellenistic Art: More realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art. Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!
  • Slide 24
  • The Breakup of Alexanders Empire