Classic Drucker - Peter F. Drucker

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Những Nguyên Lý Quản Trị Bất Biến Mọi Thời Đại - Peter F. Drucker

Transcript of Classic Drucker - Peter F. Drucker

  • 1. Cng Ty Samsung Trn trng gi n bn cun sch ny.Phin bn ebook ny c thc hin theo bn quyn xut bn v pht hnh n bnting Vit ca cng ty First News - Tr Vit vi s ti tr c quyn ca cng tyTNHH Samsung Electronics Vit Nam. Tc phm ny khng c chuyn dngsang bt k hnh thc no hay s dng cho bt k mc ch thng mi no.
  • 2. Original title:Classic Druckerby Peter F. DruckerOriginal Work Copyright 2006 Harvard Business SchoolPublishing Corporation.Vietnamese Edition 2011 by First News - Tri VietThis edition published by arrangement with Harvard Business Press.All rights reserved.Cng ty First News Tr Vit gi bn quyn xut bn v pht hnhn bn ting Vit trn ton th gii theo hp ng chuyn giao bnquyn vi NXB Trng i hc Kinh doanh Harvard, Hoa K.Bt c s sao chp no khng c s ng ca First Newsu l bt hp php v vi phm Lut Xut bn Vit Nam, LutBn quyn Quc t v Cng c Bo h Bn quyn S hu Trtu Berne.CNG TY VN HA SNG TO TR VIT FIRST NEWS11H Nguyn Th Minh Khai, Qun 1, TP. HCMTel: (84.8) 38227979 38227980 38233859 38233860Fax: (84.8) 38224560; Email: triviet@firstnews.com.vnWebsite: www.firstnews.com.vn
  • 3. Bin dch:Vng Bo Long Hng DngFIRST NEWSNH XUT BN TRTHE MAN WHO INVENTED MANAGEMENT - Business Week
  • 4. 5Li gii thiu40nm trc, ch mt s t ngi ni v tm quan trngca qun tr v tt c u b cho l in r, Peter Drucker phtbiu vo ma xun nm 2005 trc cc khn thnh gi ang tptrung tn vinh gii thng McKinsey dnh cho ng, giithng c trao cho cc tc gi c bi bo hay nht trong nmng trn t Harvard Business Review. y l ln th by ngnhn c vinh d ny, ln ny vi bi bo iu g lm nnmt nh qun tr hiu qu. Cha ai tng ginh c nhiu giiMcKinsey n th.ng c ni qu i cht, nhng 40 nm hay 50 nm khngthnh vn , v pht biu ny hon ton ng n. Na th ktrc, qun tr hu nh ch c hiu nh mt khi nim vthc t khng c xem l mt ngnh khoa hc chnh thc. Tqun tr xut hin y trong quyn sch kinh in TheOrganization Man ca William H. Whyte nm 1956, nhng huht c dng di dng tnh t nh trong cch dng nhqun tr cp trung (the average management man), chnhsch qun tr (management policy) hay dng danh t chung
  • 5. NHNG NGUYN L QUN TR BT BIN MI THI I6ng ngha vi t cc ng ch(*)(the management said). Tny hu nh cha chuyn ti c ngha ca mt ngnhchuyn mn hay mt khi nim trn vn. Qun tr c hiunh ngy nay chnh l nh cng lao to ln ca Peter Drucker.Phn ng gp quan trng ca t Harvard Business Review cao vic thc hnh qun tr v tng cng sc nh hng ca ni vi mt th gii ang bin ng c l khng thc hinc nu khng c nhng nghin cu ca ng. Khng ai cnhng cng hin ln hn ng trong s mng ny. Hn na thk qua, ng dnh cho Harvard Business Review nhng tngln nht vi tng cng 38 bi bo, trong c 15 bi tiu biunht c tp hp trong cun sch ny.Chng ta s tr li vi nhng gi tr mang tnh lch s mcc cng trnh nghin cu ca Peter Drucker mang li, nhngtrc ht ti mun bn v tm quan trng ca chng. Druckerkhng ch khai ph nhng chn tri mi ca lnh vc tri thc:m mm cho nhng tng ct li v qun tr ngy naychng ta c hng nhng thnh qu m chng mang li. Minm, cc nh qun l li khm ph ra nhng s tng ng vchnh xc n kinh ngc trong nhng bi bo v nhng cunsch ng vit ngay c trc khi h, thm ch l cha m h, rai. Khng c g v ch hn vic c cng thc hin hiu qu nhngiu l ra chng nn lm. Cu ni c vit nm 1963 cchy c hai th h nhng ti oan chc rng, ch mt vi ngytrc y thi, u trn th gii ny c mt nh qun ltr dng vit d quang nh du n.(*) Bosses: Cc ng ch.
  • 6. LI GII THIU7Ti sao li nh vy? Nghin cu ca Drucker c iu g cbit m li thu ht gii qun tr n th? Ti sao ng c th nmbt vn chnh xc hn bt k ai khc? Ti sao nhng cngtrnh nghin cu vn cn nguyn gi tr cho n ngy nay?Ti sao ng li c c nhng tng sng sut n th? V d, tng dnh cho cc nh qun l cng ngh m ng truyn licho h khi ng vo tui 95, ngay trc khi ng mt(2005)? iu u tin c gi nhn thy ng l kh nng tmc nhng cu hay cm t c th gi gn c mt vn hoc m t mt cch hon ho iu m cc nh qun l nnlm: Ti cha bao gi gp mt nh qun l no lm vic hiu qukhi gii quyt hai vic cng lc. Thch thc ln nht m nhng nhqun l ti cc nc pht trin ang gp phi l lm sao nng caohiu qu ngun nhn lc v tri thc. Nhng pht biu caDrucker xut sc n mc ngi ta lm hn mt tuyn tp(*)gm 366 trch on mi ngy cc nh qun l c th thngthc tng ngm tri thc ca ng bn tch c ph sng ca h.Tuy nhin ti nng c bit khng th gii thch cho sbn vng ca cc cng trnh nghin cu to ln m Drucker thc hin. Trn trang Amazon.com, ngi ta to ra mt danhsch gi l nhng kit tc ca Peter Drucker vi 25 u schmang tn ng. Bc thy v qun tr ny th hin trong cc tcphm i ca ng ba ti nng thin ph ca mnh.Th nht l kh nng a ra nhng cu hi ng. C mtiu khng th trnh khi l cc nh qun tr - b ri m bihng ng d liu v nhng vic chi phi s ch , b hi thca ra nhng quyt nh quan trng vi nhng thng tin khng(*) The Daily Drucker: 366 Days of Insight and Motivation for Getting the RightThings Done Peter F. Drucker (2004).
  • 7. NHNG NGUYN L QUN TR BT BIN MI THI I8y - thng phi xoay x rt cht vt xc nh iu g lcn thit, iu g khng. Nhng s c cp bch nh nht thnglm lu m nhng thng tin quan trng. Ta khng th thy ccnh rng khi ch chm chm nhn vi ci cy. Nhng ai tnglc trong cnh rng s nhn ra s sng sut l phm cht ctrng trong li suy ngh ca Drucker. Khng phi ngu nhinm t hiu qu (effective) c mt trong tiu ca 3 trongs 15 bi bo trong cun sch ny. Mt ch nht qun trongcc bi vit ca ng l cc nh qun l cn quan tm nhiu hnvo tnh hiu qu v bt lo lng v nng sut gip h tptrung vo cc vn tng th nhm to ra s thay i bn trongt chc. Kh nng t cu hi ng thin bm gip cc tcphm ca Drucker tr nn v cng thc t v gn gi.Ti nng th hai ca ng l kh nng nhn thy cc t chcnh mt tng th. Drucker khng ch nhn nhn vn chi titv sc bn hn ngi khc vn gip ng a ra nhng cuhi chnh xc m ng cn c kh nng nhn nhn vn mtcch bao qut. Ly v d v bi bo Hc thuyt kinh doanh,mt nghin cu v nhng vn lm iu ng c IBM vGeneral Motors (GM) thi im bi bo ra i vo nm 1994v vn cn m nh GM cho n by gi. Khi , cc t bo vkinh doanh ng y nhng cu chuyn v hai ch hngmnh tng chng bt kh chin bi ny. Cc tc gi thngo su, c gng tm ra gc r ca vn hay c gng khc phcnhng thiu st. H thng m ch rng xt v bn cht ch cmt vn - c th l s yu km trong nng lc lnh ohay s tham lam ca hip hi hoc cc chnh sch dnh s tptrung ch yu vo ti chnh m t ch trng n s sng to vnng sut. Hu ht chng ta u lm vy khi phn tch mt vn. Chng ta tm kim cc vn n l, nh Androcles trong
  • 8. LI GII THIU9Androcles and the Lion, ngi rt ci dm b to nhng lnguyn nhn gy au n cho ch s t. Tuy nhin, Druckercng phn tch n tng chi tit nh ca vn vi mt schnh xc cao . ng ch ra rng, mi triu chng IBMv GM l nhng du hiu cho thy cc hc thuyt v gi nhm h dng lm nn tng vn hnh b my thnh cngtrong nhiu nm qua khng cn p dng c na vn ny gy tc ng ln t chc mt cch tng th, ch khng phil vn pht sinh mt b phn v ly lan sang cc b phnkhc. Tm nhn rng l l do ti sao bi vit ca Drucker vn gic tnh thc tin khng ch i vi GM, m i vi minh qun tr ngy nay - trong khi rt nhiu bi bo ca cc nhphn tch khc vo thi tr thnh nhng t liu ca qu kh.Drucker cn nhn thy cc t chc nh mt tng th mtkha cnh khc: Cc khung tham chiu trong nhng bi vit cang khng ch bao gm cc t chc trong nn kinh t hin tim bao gm ton b cc hnh thi t chc khc trong dng chylch s. C mt bi bo vit v nhng thng tin m cc nhqun tr cn c phn tch nhng thnh cng cng nh thtbi trong kinh doanh t nhng nm 1920, 1930 v 1950, tt cu dn n mt nguyn nhn: cc nh qun l ch thu cnhng thng tin sai lch hoc khng ph hp. Khi ng a ranhng bi hc t qu kh hay t nhng t chc phi li nhun,cc nguyn nhn khng h c v thiu ng b hay b gng p:lun c nhng hin tng chung vi cc t chc xt trnphng din tng th - v khng ai c kh nng m t chngmt cch ti tnh hn Drucker. y l mt trong nhng l docc cng trnh nghin cu ca ng vn c p dng mt cchrng ri cho n ngy nay.
  • 9. NHNG NGUYN L QUN TR BT BIN MI THI I10Ti nng th ba ca ng l kh nng suy lun bng phngphp suy din v quy np mt cch cn bng. ng c th ara mt l thuyt mi hay mt hc thuyt da trn mt tp hpd liu. Ngc li, khi i din vi mt vn c th, ng cth tm ra mt l thuyt ng p dng v gii quyt n. nglm tt c hai vic ny. c th l kt qu ca phng phpgio dc c bit v qun l m ng nhn c. Ni nhIshmael, ngi k chuyn trong tc phm Moby-Dick caHerman Melville: Cnh bum ca ti l i hc Yale vHarvard. General Motors chnh l thnh qu m Drucker cc sau khi n Harvard v Wharton. u nm 1943, nhnli mi ca Donaldson Brown, Ph Ch tch Tp on GM,Drucker dnh hai nm thm nhp su vo ngnh sn xut t, theo sau Alfred P. Sloan, huyn thoi ca cc i l v nhmy, n thm cc nh cung cp hay d nhng cuc hp quantrng vi cc nh qun l. Ging nh mt s t cc bc thy vqun tr khc nh Frederick W. Taylor v Taichi Ono Druckerhc kinh doanh t bn trong. Cc tc phm ca ng rt bi bnv trau chut, nhng quan trng hn ht chng l tinh hoa canhng kin thc thc tin v mang tnh tin phong. ng l mtchuyn gia c cc nghin cu khng h mang tnh bn giy, mthc gi khng bit kin nhn trc nhng l thuyt phi thc thay cha c kim chng. S kt hp ny lm cho cc nghincu ca ng sng mi vi thi gian.Peter F. Drucker sinh nm 1909 ti Vienna, o. tui 41,ng mi c t Harvard Business Review ng bi vit u tin.Bi bo c nhan : Ban qun tr cn phi bit cch qun l!.Nm nm sau Chin tranh Th gii II, trong khi k c v cuci Suy thoi vn cn ti mi, cng on M ang hotng