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    CHARLES H. LEVINE

    Presented by Pitri Rahayu

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    Prologue

    Fiscal Stress and Service Delivery Alternatives

    Community-based Crime Prevention Group The Promise of Coproduction

    conclusion

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    The great taxpayers revolt of 1978

    Californias Proposition 13

    During the late 1960s and throughout the1970s

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    Fiscal stress is an overlay on the anti-government/

    bureaucracy framework that conditions the relationshipbetween citizenship and public administration

    Dua masalah pokok administrasi publik:1. Bagaimana sebuah pemerintah dapat membangun

    dukungan untuk perpajakan membiayai pelayananpublik ketika WN tidak mempercayai pemerintah untukmenghasilkan pelayanan yang layak?

    2. Dan, bagaimana pemerintah dapat menyediakan

    pelayanan yang layak jika WN tidak mau membayarnyamelalui mekanisme kolektif seperti perpajakan?

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    Alternative

    methods

    Privatizing

    SD

    Intergovern-

    mentalizing

    SD

    arrangements

    Improving

    operating

    productivity

    Deprofession

    alizing

    bureaucracies

    Devolvingservice

    responsibility

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    A. Privatizing service delivery1. Contracting with a private for-profit firm2. Franchising services to a private firm3. Vouchers4. User fees and charges to ration demand for services5. Shedding service responsibility to a private firm or non-profit

    organization

    B. Intergovernmentalizing service delivery arrangements1. Shedding services to another unit of government or authority2. Sharing service responsibility3. Sharing functions like data processing, planning, and communications

    C. Improving operating productivity

    1. Methods to monitor performance2. Methods to maximize output per dollar3. Methods to improve financial decision making4. Methods to track costs5. Methods to monitor and manage contract

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    D. Deprofessionalizing bureaucracies1. Civilianizing sworn personnel2. Using volunteers and paraprofessionals3. Using reserves and auxiliaries

    E. Devolving service responsibility1. Neighborhood organization of service

    delivery2. Self-help

    3. Coproduction4. Public/private partnerships to solve

    community problems

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    Alternative SDarrangement Dominant Strategy Citizen Role1) Professionalized

    bureaucracySpecialization Client

    2) Privatized SD Contracting out/user

    fees

    Consumer

    3) Intergovernmentalized SDarrangements

    Shedding and sharingservice responsibility

    Client

    4) Improved operating

    productivity

    Maximization of

    output

    Client

    5) Deprofessionalizedbureaucracies

    Use ofparaprofessionals/civilanization

    Marginal employee

    6) Devolved serviceresponsibility

    Coproduction Coproducer

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    Communities always have been concerned aboutcrime.

    Where effective law enforcement was notdeveloped, citizens have always found ways of

    apprehending criminals and preventing crime. Citizen activity in modern law enforcement

    includes activities which can be performed byindividuals or groups with or without the

    assistance or knowledge of the police. In 1980s, these activities has become a very

    important deterrent to criminal activities.

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    Causes SolutionsReporting inconvenient; takes toomuch time; dont want to botherpolice; difficulties with police

    Simplify reporting; pamphlets onwhat to report; limit work hours;support from police, positiveattitude

    Fear of involvement Anonymous reportingNo official recognition; no supportfrom police, neighborhood,members, other organizations

    Awards, media coverage, ID cards;faster response time by police;community involvement

    Novelty wears off; lost interest;

    dont think important; nothing todo

    Other activities; other affiliations;

    increased responsibilities; showsuccesses

    Its not my job; thats what policeare for

    Offer tax credits for participation

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    Causes SolutionsLoss of community pride; apathy;not important; not seen aseffective; no sense of security

    Develop community support;sense of community,neighborhood unity; contactmembers frequently; show

    success; support of and by policyBoredom; loss interest Include other issues; redevelop

    goals

    Members do not have time,money for gas, phones, access,etc.

    Seek contributions; decreaseamount of work by each member;environmental changes

    Not well organized; internalconflict; negative purpose

    Other affiliations; simplifyactivities; develop multipupose,non-crime sctivity

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    Three questions immediately arise about thefeasibility of the coproduction concept:

    First, how generalizable is this example to otherservices that are not so central to citizens lives

    or so crisis prone? Second, what are the equity considerations that

    likely will arise from such administrative reforms? Third, how does a narrow citizen-based, service-

    providing group promote the development of

    such attributes of citizenship as trust ingovernment, citizen efficacy, and a concern forthe common good?

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    GeneralizabilityThe crucial point about the coproduction

    concept is that it highlights a different

    understanding of urban service delivery, and of

    productivity improvement, from that

    incorporated in the dominant model [i.e. publicadministrators produce services, citizens

    consume them]. Here, the assumption is not that

    government officials perform for citizens, and

    therefore bear total responsibility for

    productivity improvements of lack thereof;

    rather, the emphasis is upon service delivery as

    a joint venture, involving both citizens and

    government agents.

    (Sharp argument)

    EquityWealthier, better-educated, or nonminority

    citizens may be more willing to engage in

    coproduction activities. To the extent that

    coproduction raises the quality of services

    received, it may exacerbate gaps between theadvantaged and disadvantaged classes.

    Rosentraub and Sharp Observation)

    Decentralization will soon be followed by

    disparities inpractices among the numerous

    small units, brought on by differences in human

    financial resources, that will engender demands

    for central intervention to restore equality and

    balance and concerted action.

    (herbert kaufman)

    Bridges to citizenshipAt the minimum, such a bridge needs three

    stands: innovation, participation, and loyalty.

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    Those who believe that citizenship, civic virtue, and publicservice should be an important part of our nationalculture should be distressed that these features ofdemocracy have come to be regarded as mere myths in apolicy that increasingly rewards narrow self-interest.

    For those who wish a more communitarian arrangement of

    their civic life, coproduction promises a beginning that canbe built upon, once working with public employee andwith neighbors become habitual and an integral part ofeveryday life.

    For the public administrator, the lessons are clear: thestrategy of coproduction promises to be a powerful tool

    for resolving fiscal stress and an auspicious start on theroad to restoring the trust and support of citizens for theirpublic institutions.

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