Citing & Referencing - Harvard

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Citing and Referencing - Harvard. Heriot-Watt University Library

Transcript of Citing & Referencing - Harvard

  • 1.Citing & Referencing Harvard Kirsty ThomsonSubject LibrarianSpring 2013

2. Todays Workshop Why do you need to reference? What needs referenced? What is Harvard referencing, and how do youdo it? Tips and common mistakes. Getting more help. 3. Why do you need to reference? Its part of academic writing academicresearch builds on existing knowledge. Shows that youve read, understood, and canuse other researchers observations. Avoids plagiarism: passing off someone elses writing, ideas orresearch as your own. 4. Background 5. What year are you in?0% 1. First year of an undergraduate (first)degree.0% 2. Other year of undergraduate degree.0% 3. Postgraduate student.0% 4. Research assistant/staff. 6. Author-date referencing 7. Roberts, K. (2004) Lovemarks: the future beyondbrands, New York: Powerhouse Books.Rossiter, J.R. and Bellman, S. (2005) Marketingcommunications: theory and applications,Sydney: Pearson Prentice Hall. 8. Referencing ...0% 1. Ive never done referencing before. 2. Ive done a bit of referencing, but not0%with an author-date system likeHarvard.0% 3. Ive used Harvard/author-date a bit, butIm not confident.0% 4. Im used Harvard a lot; Im here for arefresher. 9. What needs referenced? 10. When to reference ... Need to reference: Quotes Facts Ideas } from somewhere/someone else. Need to give source even if you have putinformation into your own words. Dont need to reference established facts (thingsthat people studying your subject would alwaysknow). 11. Would this need referenced? The average temperature in winter is lower than in summer.0% 1. Yes0% 2. No 12. Would this need referenced? Around a quarter of UK households are in fuel poverty, spending more than 10% of their income on heating costs.0%1. Yes0%2. No 13. Harvard Referencing 14. What is Harvard Referencing? Author-date referencing system. Lots of different versions of Harvard: Heriot-Watt Library guidelines online at If your lecturer/course handbook tells youto do something different, follow theirguidance. 15. Citations Citations are pointers in your writing tellingthe reader you got your information fromsomewhere else: According to Smith (1985) the inter-war periodwas critical in the development of Early work on bridge construction showed metalwelding was important (Smith 1893, Jones andPhillips 1902) A recent survey (Gordon 2011) found 16. Reference list A list of all the sources you have cited yourassignment. given at the end of your work. in alphabetical order by author/editor. not separated into types of information (not books, then journals, then websites.) Note: a bibliography lists all of the sources youhave read to help write your assignment, not justthose cited in the text. Bibliography and/or reference list? Ask your tutor! 17. Harvard - books 18. Books Will need: author(s)/editors(s). name of book. year of publication (not year of printing). name of company that published book. place the publisher is based. 19. Citation: Author(s)/editor(s) surname and year of publication. it has been shown (Ransom 2002) . OR Ransom (2002 , p.205) has shown [Also page number? More on this later.] Reference list: Author(s)/Editor(s) surname and initials (date of publication) Title, edition if not first, Place of publication: Publisher. Ransom, D. (2002) The no-nonsense guide to fair trade, Oxford: New Internationalist. 20. Author(s)/Editor(s) surname and initials (date ofpublication) Title, edition if not first, Place ofpublication: Publisher.Naylor, J. (2004) Management, 2nd ed.,Harlow: PearsonEducation. 21. More than one author - two or three Give all authors in citation, in the same orderas on the book: e.g., Companies that discriminate lose talent(Torrington, Hall and Taylor 2008). Reference list: Torrington, D., Hall, L. and Taylor, S. (2008) Humanresource management, 7th ed., Harlow: PrenticeHall. 22. More than one author four or more Use et al. (and others) in the citation, but give allauthors in reference list. Solomon et al. (2006) suggest that [Not Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard, and Hogg (2006)suggest that ] Solomon, M., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S. and Hogg,M.K. (2006) Consumer behaviour: a Europeanperspective, 3rd ed., Harlow: Financial Times. 23. Page numbers in citations Different departments have different guidelines. Some only ask for page numbers when you arequoting. Others want page numbers even if theinformation is in your own words. SML page numbers only needed for quotations. Others - ??? Check your assignment guidelines orask your tutor. 24. Books with editors (1) Does each chapter have a different author? If so,use the chapter author(s) in the citation. Tiesdell (2010) provides an overview of A major development challenge has been the Clyde waterfront (Tiesdell 2010). Title of chapter Reference like this: Tiesdell, S. (2010) Glasgow: renaissance on the Clyde?, in Punter, J. (ed.). Urban Title of design and the British urban renaissance, book Abingdon: Routledge, pp.262-279. Page numbersfor chapter 25. Books with editors (2) Sometimes a book has an editor but doesnt havechapters by different people. Cite these booksusing the editor. Kohl won elections in 1983, 1987 and 1990(Palmer 1996, p.200). Palmer, A. (ed.) (1996) Whos who in worldpolitics: from 1860 to the present day, London:Routledge. 26. No date? No author? No date use n.d. Hendry (n.d.) describes. Hendry, S. (n.d.) Flora and fauna of Scotland,Glasgow: Collins. No author or editor use the title of thebook. Understanding SPSS (2009) describes.... Understanding SPSS (2009) London: SPSS Press 27. Translations In Vondungs The apocalypse in Germany(2000, p.64), translated by S.D. Ricks, OR According to Vondung (2000, p.64) ... Vondung, K. (2000) The apocalypse inGermany. Translated from German by S.D.Ricks, Columbia: University of Missouri Press. 28. eBooks Osman Akan (2006, p.26) shows that OR It has been shown that (Osman Akan 2006, p.26). Osman Akan, A. (2006) Open channel hydraulics,Butterworth-Heinemann [online], available: [accessed 12 January2009]. (The author in this example has two surnames.) 29. Harvard - journals 30. Journals Will need: author(s) of article. title of article. title of journal. year of publication. volume, part and page numbers. (plus URL and date accessed for online articles). 31. Citing journal articles: paper The new trend towards conservation was key inthe preservation of Edinburgh Castle (Morris,2007).ORName of author Morris (2007) states that (not journal title) Morris, R.J. (2007) The capitalist, the professorand the soldier: the re-making of EdinburghCastle, 1850-1900, Planning Perspectives, 22,55-78. All page numbers (not just starting page) 32. More than one author Same rules as books. Citations: give all authors if two or three. use et al. in citation if there are four or moreauthors. Reference list: give all authors. 33. Citing journal articles: online PDF reference like a normal paper journalarticle. HTML (webpage) include URL and date youvisited page: Midgley, S.L.W. and Olsen, M.K. (2012) Spectralanalysis of a four mode cluster state, Laser Physics[online], 22(7), 1271-1274, available: [accessed 17 October 2012]. 34. Other types of materialExamples in your handoutand 35. In text citation - which is correct?1. Successful management involves all members0% of a business, not just the managers (John Naylor 2004)0%2. Successful management involves all members of a business, not just the managers (Naylor 2004)0%3. Successful management involves all members of a business, not just the managers (2004 - Naylor) 36. Journal article which is correct? 1. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and0%Rantala, M.J. (2009) Proceedings of the Royal Society B,277(168), 513-518. 2. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. and0%Rantala, M.J. (2009) The increased risk of predationincreases cooperation, Proceedings of the Royal Society B,277(168), 513-518.0% 3. Krams, I., Berzins, A., Krama, T., Wheatcroft, D. andRantala, M.J. (2009) The increased risk of predationincreases cooperation, Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 37. Tips 38. Quotes Must make it clear that the words came fromsomewhere else. Short quotes use quotation marks: According to Royle (2000, p.167) the British state wasstrong because it was militarily effective and relativelyefficient at raising taxes. According to Royle (2000, p.167) the British state wasstrong because it was relatively efficient at raising taxes. Ellipsis (three dots ) shows that you haveremoved words from the original text. 39. Longer quotes - space above and below the quote, indent quotefrom left.According to Solomon et. al. (2006, p.177): The effectiveness of celebrities as communications sources often depends upon their perceived credibility. Consumers may not trust a celebritys motives for endorsing a product or they may question the stars competence to evaluate the products claims.Therefore, it can be assumed ... Dont waste word count on quotes - more marks if you demonstrateunderstanding. Useful when you need to show the exact wording, or if you aregoing to discuss the quote. 40. Secondary referencing Use secondary referencing when your source refers toresearch done by someone else (which you cantlocate) and you believe that your sourcesinterpretation of the work is reliable. E.g., book by Jones talking about work done by Smith: According to Smith, cited in Jones (2008, p.17) OR Jones (2008, p.17) citing Smi