Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2004Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials Chapter 1...

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Cisco Networking Academy Program Copyright 2004 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials Chapter 1 Cabling and Safety Overview
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Transcript of Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2004Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials Chapter 1...

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2004 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Chapter 1 Cabling and Safety Overview

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2004 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Chapter Objectives

• Learn about the Cabling Industry and the Cabling Job Market

• Examine Safety Codes and Standards

• Discuss Safety Around Electricity

• Discuss Lab and Workplace Safety Practices

• Learn about Personal Safety Equipment

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Analog Telephony

• A telephone network needs a cable run between each residence or business and a central telephone office

• With the popularization of the telephone, the quality of the connection became important. At the same time, the need to standardize installation practices, equipment, and materials was realized

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Voice Cabling

• Typically, telephone cabling consists of two wires

• These two wires are twisted around each other to prevent signals from one pair leaking into the other. This type of wiring is called twisted-pair

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Structured Cabling

• The concept of using a single wiring scheme to handle all voice, data, and other services like video is called structured cabling

• Structured cabling also includes all the devices that cable is pulled through, the equipment to which the cable is terminated, and electronic devices that connect users and resources

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Emerging Cable Technologies

• Fiber-optic is a type of cable that uses pulses of light to transmit data through glass threads

• Wireless uses radio or microwave signals as a tool for transmitting data or voice

• High-speed access technologies:

•Cable TV has great potential as a bandwidth delivery mechanism

•Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a group of technologies that uses carrier signals on the existing wires of the telephone system to carry high-speed digital data

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Costs of Poor Cabling

• The job of the cable installer is to provide good, technically accurate cabling between all of the communications devices that make up the network

• It is more economical for customers to pay a little more up front to make sure the job is done right, conforms to standards, and is scalable

• Network administrators waste time troubleshooting problems caused by poor installation

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Cabling Industry Jobs

• Entry-level installer

• Installation supervisor

• Project manager

• Cabling design engineer

• Marketing representative

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Safety Codes

• Employee safety - Stay alert, think ahead, and wear appropriate protective gear to help stay safe

• Workplace safety - Work with others in a way that does not endanger them

• Public safety - Take precaution in all work conditions

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Public Safety Organizations

• National, state, and local codes - Follow all building codes, whether they are on the local, state, or national level

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Electrical Safety

• Cable wiring works with low-voltage, but nearby network and electrical equipment run on 110-240 volts, which is dangerous

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Hazardous Voltages

• Hazardous voltages can be found in unfinished spaces and access areas such as those found above ceilings, in equipment rooms, or in telecommunications rooms

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Electrical Safety

• Keep an eye out for abnormal circumstances such as circuit breaker boxes with the covers removed, frayed or loose cords, and damaged equipment

• Pay particular attention to other devices and other workers in the work area

• Never touch a cable that might be "live" with both hands, because a complete circuit could be formed. Always keep one hand off of the cable

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Precautions Around Lightning

• All outside equipment must be properly grounded

• Avoid wiring in or near damp areas

• Never install or connect copper wiring during an electrical storm

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Voltage Safety Check

• Before starting any job, test nearby cables for voltage levels using a multimeter or voltage tester

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Proper Grounding

• Proper grounding provides:

• Protection from high voltages

• Power faults such as electrical shorts

• A proper path for lightning

• Dissipation of electrostatic charges

• A zero volt reference for signaling and metering voltage

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

GFCIs

• Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) stop the flow of electrons and reduce the hazard of electrical shock and fire. These devices protect personnel, buildings, and the lab from harmful electricity

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Bonding

• Bonding provides a means for various wiring fixtures to interconnect with the grounding system

• A networking or electronic device may have a bonding strap between its case and a ground circuit to ensure a good connection

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Purpose of Grounding and Bonding

• Properly installed bonding and grounding will:

• Minimize electrical surge (spike) effects

• Maintain the integrity of the electrical grounding plant

• Provide a safer and more effective path to ground

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Grounding Standards

• The National Electric Code (NEC) has standards for grounding which must be followed by all installers and electricians working in the United States

• International installers and electricians should check with local governments as to the grounding standards in their countries

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Six Feet of Separation Rule

• Allow 6 feet, or 1.8 m, between voice and data cabling and high-voltage wiring

• The noise from electrical circuits or devices, known as electromagnetic interference (EMI), can interfere with data signals, thus distorting them and causing general communications problems

• It minimizes the possibility of accidental contact with hazardous voltages

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Electrostatic Discharge

• Electrostatic discharge (ESD), more commonly known as static electricity, can be the most damaging and uncontrollable form of electricity

• Static electricity shocks can be disastrous for computers

• Good grounding and bonding can prevent damage from static electricity because they pass static bursts to the ground

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Preventing ESD

• Always wear wrist straps when working inside computer equipment

• Set computer equipment on ESD protective mats when working inside them

• Use a humidifier when working in a cool, dry environment

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

ESD Workspace

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Lab and Workplace Safety

• Turn off power before working inside walls, ceilings, or attics

• Never touch power cables

• Be aware of sharp objects, exposed wires, dirt, and dust

• Be aware of other people working in the area

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Work Area Safety

• Survey work area beforehand

• Ask building supervisor if you could come in contact with dangerous materials (chemicals, asbestos, or lead)

• Keep area clean and neat

• Locate fire extinguishers

• Use fire-rated cables in plenum areas and riser cables between floors

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Other Work Area Hazards

• Water

• Weather

• Noise

• Fumes

• Heights

• Rodents and insects

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Ladder Safety

• Select the right ladder for the job

• Inspect the ladder

• Set the ladder properly and safely, and secure the area around the ladder

• Climb and descend cautiously

• Work on the ladder safely

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Fiber-Optic Safety

• Always wear safety glasses with side shields

• Always work in a well-ventilated area

• Place a mat on the table to collect all glass shards. Use masking tape to remove glass shards from hands and clothing

• Do not touch eyes while working with fiber-optic systems

• Clean work areas thoroughly, and dispose of glass shards in proper, approved sharps containers

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

First Aid Kit

• Every work area should have a first aid kit available

• Periodically check that it is fully stocked

• Make sure that it contains an eye wash cup for debris

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Fire Safety

• Call for help immediately if the fire cannot be quickly and safely extinguished

• Notify others in the building that there is a fire by activating the fire alarm or yelling “Fire!”

• Only fight a small fire if you are certain that it is safe to do so

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Fire Extinguisher Ratings

• A – Ordinary materials (burning paper, lumber, cardboard, plastics)

• B – Flammable and combustible liquids (gasoline, kerosene, solvents)

• C – Electrical equipment such as appliances, switches, panel boxes, and power tools

• D – Combustible metals such as magnesium, titanium, potassium, and sodium

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Injury Prevention

• Follow all national, industry, and workplace safety rules

• Training is essential when working with electricity, power tools, or any other potential hazardous equipment

• Use safety equipment

• Be alert and act professionally

• Stay current on issues related to safety and health in the workplace

Cisco Networking Academy ProgramCopyright 2005 Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials

Personal Safety Equipment

Wearing protective clothing and gear can prevent an injury or make one less severe

• Safety goggles

• Ear plugs and muffs

• Respirators and dust masks

• Protective gloves

• Work boots

• Hard hat