Cinematography and videography

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Cinematography and videography. Conveying meaning visually. Semantic and iconic representation Iconic: Cinematography/ videography Direction/blocking Set design Costuming/makeup Visual effects Editing. Process. Pre-production - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cinematography

Cinematography and videographyConveying meaning visuallySemantic and iconic representation Iconic:Cinematography/videographyDirection/blockingSet designCostuming/makeupVisual effectsEditingProcessPre-productionStoryboarding: The director develops a set of shots to go with the proposed story (scenes, etc.) to be used to manage productionProduction design: Sets, finding locations, etc.ProductionCameraworkSet designBlockingPost-productionEditingVisual effects/compositingStoryboarding

Cinematography/videographyThe art and science of capturing the visual content necessary to construct the narrative on film or videotape

Major concernsWhat will be included in each shot? Framing and compositionWhat position will the camera take with regard to the mise-en-scene?DistanceAngleMovementWhat will be in focus/out of focus?How will the scene be lit?How will color and tint affect the images?How sharp will the image be?Lighting, focus and movement can draw the audience members attention to the most important elements in a sceneIt may take some expertise and effort to avoid distraction from the contentFor example, moving indoors after shooting with natural lighting can generate distracting effects in a film unless adjustments in lighting, camera work and film stock are made

9Camera position: Distance from subjectThe physical distance of the camera (viewpoint) from the subject affects the audience reaction to the sceneThe shorter the distance, the more likely the audience is to identify with the actor/characterThe closer the audience member is to the character the more powerful the emotional reactionCan see the actors face, body movement, etc.Distance from subjectWhen the camera is far away from the subject, it can provide a great deal of information about the scene, the context, action other than that engaged in by the subject, etc.Allows audience to make sense of what is going on in the sceneEstablishing shotDeep v. shallow space

Distance from subject

Source: David ChandlerDepth of fieldThe size of the area that is in focus in a shotLenses vary in the depth they bring into focus, image size, etc.Deep v. shallow focusChoice of lensesExperience of depthBreadth of focused fieldNew lenses allow for focus throughout a very deep fieldFocus does not have to be fixedZoom lens

Deep v. shallow focus

Wide angle lens

Telephoto lens

Zoom in

Track inPulling/rack focus

Angle to subjectWhen the subject is below the audience member it tends to make the subject seem weak or pitifulWhen the audience is looking up at a subject it tends to make that subject look powerful or in commandThese are tendencies and are not universally trueAngle to subject

Camera movement

Camera movementModern technology has allowed for much greater camera mobility than was the case in early film or televisionDollies/tracksCranesWiresHand-heldSteady-cam

Camera movementRotation/pivot of the camera while on a fixed stand:Up and down: tiltSide to side: panTurn: rollCamera stand moves:Side to side: Usually called tracking, but may be called trucking, crabbing or dollyingForward or backward: Usually called dollying but may be called tracking, trucking or crabbingUp or down: Pedestalling (Ped up or down)Movement that goes in multiple directions and usually requires a crane is craningSmooth v. shaky movementHand-heldSteadycamMotion controlFunctions of camera movementReframingWhen a character moves, camera moves to provide adequate headspace, avoid cutting off limbs, etc.Helps fix the viewers eye on important characters and objectsFunctions of camera movementFollowingMaintain contact with a characterFunctions of camera movementDirect audience to information unknown to charactersIdentify important information that will be used later in the narrativeFunctions of camera movementHelp to create suspense or surprisePrevent the audience from seeing something until the last second

Functions of camera movementProvide a particular position for the viewerOmniscientSubjectiveObjectiveLighting(www.tvcrit.com)

Three point lighting

Key light

Fill light

Back light

Multi-camera production

overhead diagram of a set with a couple of actors and four cameras.Date Source w:en:Image:Multicamera-diagram.pngAuthor w:en:User:Brion_VIBBERPermission(Reusing this file) w:en:User:Brion_VIBBER/Maps_and_images_for_Wikipedia#Other_images

36Single-camera production

overhead diagram of a set with a couple of actors and a single camera.Date 2011-03-02 20:05 (UTC)Source Multicamera-diagram.pngAuthor Multicamera-diagram.png: w:en:User:Brion_VIBBERderivative work: WikiMichi (talk)Permission(Reusing this file) See below.Public domainPublic domainfalsefalse I, the copyright holder of this work, release this work into the public domain. This applies worldwide.In some countries this may not be legally possible; if so:I grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose, without any conditions, unless such conditions are required by law. Public domainPublic domainfalsefalse[edit] Original upload logThis image is a derivative work of the following images:File:Multicamera-diagram.png licensed with PD-user 2007-04-17T06:35:43Z Yot 324x194 (4336 Bytes) {{Information |Description= overhead diagram of a set with a couple of actors and four cameras. |Source= [[w:en:Image:Multicamera-diagram.png]] |Date= |Author= [[w:en:User:Brion_VIBBER]] |Permission= [[w:en:User:Brion_VIBBER/

37High key lighting

Low key lighting

The Man Who Wasnt ThereCitizen KaneFilm exposureOverexposure makes film look grainier and in higher contrast and saturates the colorsYALE FILM STUDIESFilm Analysis Web Site 2.0