Chuy»ƒn h³a glucid

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1. Trao i trc tuyn ti: http://www.mientayvn.com/Y_online.html 2. CHUYCHUYN HN HAA GLUCIDGLUCID ThThcc ss ngng ThTh HHngng DiDipp BB mnmn SinhSinh hhaa KhoaKhoa YY HYD TP HCMHYD TP HCM 3. MMC TIUC TIU 1.1. MM tt cc bbngng ss nhnhngng concon ngng CHCH chchnhnh ccaa GlucidGlucid 2.2. XXcc nhnh cc vaivai trtr ttoo nngnng vv ttoo hhnhnh ccaa GlucidGlucid qua conqua con ngng HDPHDP vv HMP:HMP: -- PhnPhn ttchch cc bbngng ss chichi tititt cccc gg ccaa concon ngng HDPHDP vvii ss thamtham giagia ccaa cccc enzymenzym.. TTnhnh cc nngnng llngng ttoo ththnhnh.. -- PhnPhn ttchch cc 22 gg ccaa concon ngng HMP,HMP, cc bibitt ll ss ttoo ththnhnh NAPH, H+NAPH, H+ vv ribose 5Pribose 5P -- nghnghaa,, mmii linlin quanquan gigiaa HDPHDP vv HMPHMP 4. MMC TIUC TIU 3.3. TrTrnhnh bbyy cc CHCH ccaa Fructose,Fructose, GalactoseGalactose, acid, acid UronicUronic 4.4. XXcc llpp cc mmii quanquan hh gigiaa CHCH ccaa GlucidGlucid, Lipid,, Lipid, ProtidProtid quaqua ss tntn ttoo GlucidGlucid 5.5. NuNu cc mmii q/hq/h vv cc iimm CHCH GlucidGlucid cccc mm.. 6.6. TrTrnhnh bbyy cc ngungunn ggcc,, ss iiuu haha vv nhnhngng thaythay ii bbnhnh ll ccaa ngng huyhuytt.. 5. DDnn bbii II..ii cngcng:: -- TTngng ququtt vv CHCH GlucidGlucid VV -- CHCH trungtrung giangian ccaa GlucidGlucid trongtrong TBTB -- MMtt ss thuthutt ngng II.ThoII.Thoii hhaa GlucidGlucid theotheo concon ngng HDPHDP III.ThoIII.Thoii hhaa theotheo concon ngng HMPHMP IV.TIV.Tngng hhpp GlucidGlucid V.MV.Mtt ss concon ngng CHCH khkhcc VI.QuanVI.Quan hh vv cc iimm CHCH GlucidGlucid cccc mm VIIVII..iiuu haha CHCH GlucidGlucid 6. II..ii cngcng (1)(1) I.1.TI.1.Tngng ququtt vv CHCH GlucidGlucid VV:: -- NguNgunn GlucidGlucid:: -- GlucidGlucid chichimm llngng llnn trongtrong TT hhngng ngngyy.. -- TV: TB,TV: TB, saccarosesaccarose, m, maltose, glucoaltose, glucose, fse, fructoseructose -- VV: Lactose (: Lactose (ssaa), glycogen (), glycogen (gan,gan,cc)) --TiuTiu hhaa GlucidGlucid:: ththyy phnphn PS, OSPS, OS MSMS EnzymEnzym:: hydrolasehydrolase tiutiu hhaa ggmm --endoglucosidaseendoglucosidase::--amylaseamylase disacaridasedisacaridase: maltase, lactase,: maltase, lactase, oligosacaridaseoligosacaridase ggnn trntrn mmngng TBTB nimnim mmcc rurutt non.non. 7. II..ii cngcng (2)(2) -- TiuTiu hhaa:: -- mimingng rurutt nonnon tt trtrngng hhngng trtrngng.. -- vv ll --amylase:amylase: -- -- 1,41,4 glucanohydrolaseglucanohydrolase -- GlucidGlucid OligosacaridOligosacarid,, maltooligosacaridmaltooligosacarid,, isomaltoseisomaltose Glucose.Glucose. 8. VV trtr ccaa alpha amylasealpha amylase E.C.3.E.C.3.--..--..-- HydrolasesHydrolases.. E.C.3.2.E.C.3.2.--..-- GlycosylasesGlycosylases.. E.C.3.2.1.E.C.3.2.1.-- GlycosidasesGlycosidases, i.e. enzymes, i.e. enzymes hydrolyzing Ohydrolyzing O-- and Sand S--glycosylglycosyl E.C.3.2.1.1 AlphaE.C.3.2.1.1 Alpha--amylase.amylase. Reaction:Reaction: EndohydrolysisEndohydrolysis of 1,4of 1,4--alphaalpha--glucosidic linkagesglucosidic linkages in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. OtherOther name(sname(s):): 1,41,4--alphaalpha--DD--glucanglucan glucanohydrolaseglucanohydrolase.. GlycogenaseGlycogenase.. Comments:Comments: Acts on starch, glycogen and relatedActs on starch, glycogen and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in a random manner;polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in a random manner; reducing groups are liberated in the alphareducing groups are liberated in the alpha--configuration.configuration. 9. amylaseamylase nncc bbtt 10. AmylopectinAmylopectin 11. S S TTNG QUNG QUT CHUYT CHUYN HN HA GLUCIDA GLUCID RuRutt nonnon TinhTinh bbtt AmylaseAmylase Maltose,Maltose, MaltotrioseMaltotriose,, OseOse MaltaseMaltase G + GG + G SaccaroseSaccarose SaccaraseSaccarase F + GF + G LactoseLactose LactaseLactase Gal + GGal + G TiuTiu hhaa GlycogenGlycogen TGTG GanGan LactatLactat ChChtt khkhcc COCO22 HH22OO G6PG6P GlycogenGlycogen MMuu CC vv cccc mm khkhcc GG GGGG 12. HHP THP TH GLUCIDGLUCID ngng RuRutt NimNim mmcc rurutt nonnon ATPATP TT bboo MMuu KhuKhuchch ttnn HexokinaseHexokinase GG G6PG6PGG GGGG ADPADP PP PhosphatasePhosphatase KhuKhuchch ttnn 13. II..ii cngcng (3)(3) -- SS v/cv/c ttchch cccc GlucoseGlucose nhnh ghghpp vvii bmbm NaNa++ -- KK++ vv ss khukhuchch ttnn nn thuthunn.. -- Cellulose (Cellulose (l/kl/k --1,4 glycoside):1,4 glycoside): khngkhng t/ht/haa -- DDngng GlucidGlucid dd trtr VV ll Glycogen:Glycogen: cc,gan,gan -- DDngng GlucidGlucid v/cv/c trongtrong cccc ddchch: Glucose: 15g: Glucose: 15g -- GlucoseGlucose mmuu: 0,7: 0,7 1,2g/l1,2g/l cc v/cv/c vv /ha/ha linlin ttcc.. -- VVoo TB :TB : GlucidGlucid chchuu nhinhiuu q/trq/tr ch/hch/h phphcc ttpp.. 14. Na+/K+Na+/K+--ATPaseATPase Flow of ions. Sodium-potassium pump, E2-Pi state. Calculated hydrocarbon boundaries of the lipid bilayer Alpha and beta units: l protein xuyn mng in hnh, xc tc s thy phn ATP, cung cp E cho s i chuyn Na+ v K+ are shown as blue (intracellular) and red (extracellular) planes 15. Na+/K+Na+/K+--ATPaseATPase In the figure below is depicted a membrane and an integral membrane protein called a Na+-K+ ATPase. In the figure are two triangles that indicate concentration gradients of Na+ and K+ across the membrane. The Na+-K+ ATPase will transport Na+ ions against its concentration gradient and K+ ions against its concentration gradient. 16. II..ii cngcng (4)(4) 1.2.CH1.2.CH trungtrung giangian ccaa GlucidGlucid trongtrong TB:TB: -- CC chchtt ll Glucose:Glucose: -- tt dodo -- kktt hhpp -- GlucoseGlucose G6PG6P -- VaiVai trtr ccaa CHCH GlucidGlucid:: HDP (HDP (hexosehexose diphosphatdiphosphat)) ++ ttoo nngnng:: GG c/cc/cpp 60%60% EE ++ ttoo hhnhnh:: -- cungcung ccpp nhnhngng chchtt thamtham giagia ccuu trtrcc TBTB cc thth:: ribose, G, gal.,ribose, G, gal.,a.glucoronica.glucoronic 17. CHUYCHUYN HN HA GLUCID TRONG TA GLUCID TRONG T BBOO GG NADPNADP++ PyruvatPyruvat HiHiuu khkh NADPHHNADPHH++ Rib 5 PRib 5 P HMPHMP G6PDHG6PDH F1F1--6 D P6 D P G 6 PG 6 P LactoseLactose Glucolipid/mGlucolipid/mngng PSPS ttpp a.Glucuronica.Glucuronic khkh cc,, cc oo ththii vvii BilBil, steroid, steroid ActCoAActCoA LactatLactat GalGal THAB, Steroid, AN,THAB, Steroid, AN, nucleosidnucleosid YYmm khkh 2H2H HH22OO OO22 HHTBHHTB ATPATPADPADP ++ PvcPvc CreatinCreatin PP CreatinCreatin KK O.AO.A HDPHDP GlycogenGlycogen 18. II..ii cngcng (5)(5) -- cc iimm:: ggmm nhinhiuu q/trq/tr CHCH nhngnhng khngkhng ttchch ringring ttngng nhnhmm pp hhhh rrii nhaunhau,, mm cc ss l/quanl/quan,, trtrngng llpp,, thuthunn nghnghchch.. -- CHCH GlucidGlucid l/qul/qu vvii cccc CHCH khkhcc -- TrungTrung tmtm ll concon ngng HDP (HDP (hexosehexose diphosphatdiphosphat)) 19. II..ii cngcng (6)(6) 1.3.M1.3.Mtt ss thuthutt ngng:: -- SS lnln menmen:: -- ss thothoii hhaa glucidglucid trongtrong /k/k yymm khkh alcolalcol ethylicethylic ((ss lnln menmen rruu), acid lactic (), acid lactic (ss lnln men lactic)men lactic) -- ngng phnphn-- glycolysisglycolysis:: -- GG pyruvatpyruvat -- HDP, HMPHDP, HMP:: -- 2 con2 con ngng thothoii hhaa glucidglucid -- SS hh hhpp:: -- thothoii hhaa glucidglucid trongtrong /k/k hihiuu khkh ((cc OO22)) -- GlycogenGlycogen phnphn--glycogenolysisglycogenolysis:: GlycogenGlycogen GlucoseGlucose COCO22 + H+ H22OO 20. II..ii cngcng (7)(7) -- TTngng hhpp GlycogenGlycogen ((glycogenesisglycogenesis):): -- G , MSG , MS Glycogen.Glycogen. -- TnTn ttoo GlucidGlucid ((gluconeogenesisgluconeogenesis):): -- NhNhngng chchtt khngkhng phphii glucidglucid ((pyruvatpyruvat,, lactat,aalactat,aa, glycerol), glycerol) vv nhnhngng chchtt trungtrung giangian cc thth CH quaCH qua pyruvatpyruvat hayhay chuchu trtrnhnh acid citricacid citric Glucose, glycogen.Glucose, glycogen. 21. II. CII. CON ON NG HDPNG HDP -- HexoseHexose diphosphatdiphosphat == Fructose 1,6Fructose 1,6--diphosphatdiphosphat -- GGmm 33 gg, 14, 14 khukhu pp:: -- GG1:1: PhosphorylPhosphoryl hhaa GlucoseGlucose vv ss ttoo ththnhnh HDPHDP ((tiutiu thth ATP)ATP) ATPATP -- GG2:2: oxyoxy hhaa HDPHDP pyruvatpyruvat NADH, HNADH, H++ hihiuu khkh -- GG3:3: acidacid pyruvicpyruvic HH22O + COO + CO22 + ATP+ ATP yymm khkh acidacid pyruvicpyruvic lactatlactat tiutiu thth NADH,HNADH,H++ 22. GG11 GG1:1: hohott hhaa.. CCcc khukhu tt 11 5:5: KhuKhu 11:: phnphn lyly Glycogen,Glycogen, nhnh ss phphii hhpp ccaa 33 enzymenzym:: GlycogenGlycogen phosphorylasephosphorylase ((phosphorylasephosphorylase)) OlygoOlygo 11--44 glucantransferaseglucantransferase ((oligotransferaseoligotransferase)) 1,61,6--glucosidaseglucosidase ((enzymenzym cctt nhnhnhnh)) 23. PhosphorylasePhosphorylase CC coenzymcoenzym:: pyridoxalpyridoxal phosphatphosphat PhosphorylasePhosphorylase:: ddngng a:a: hh mmnhnh ddngng b:b: khngkhng hh -- bb a:a: nhnh ss phosphorylphosphoryl hhaa nhnhngng ggcc serinserin trongtrong ptpt enzymenzym -- aa b:b: nhnh phosphorylasephosphorylase ttchch phosphatphosphat.. 24. 4 ATP4 ATP PhosphorylasePhosphorylase bb 4 H4 H22OO44 PvcPvc 4 ADP4 ADP PhosphorylasePhosphorylase aa ((hohott ngng)) PP PP PP PP Phosphorylase kinase Phosphatase 25. PhosphorylasePhosphorylase LL 11 phosphotransferasephosphotransferase cctt l/kl/k 1,41,4--glucosidglucosid ttchch ddnn ttngng GG tt uu khngkhng khkh ccaa mmchch ((uu cc OHOH tt dodo C4),C4), bbngng ccchch ggnn ggcc PP vvoo vv trtr C1C1 G1P:G1P: phosphorylphosphoryl phnphn phnphn lyly nhnh phosphorylphosphoryl hhaa.. ttoo 1l/k ester1l/k ester nghnghoo EE tt EE ccaa ss cctt tt l/kl/k 11--4.4. PhosphorylasePhosphorylase cctt ddnn ttngng GG tt uu mmchch nn khikhi cncn khokhongng 4G4G ttnhnh tt l/kl/k 1,61,6 ngngngng hh SP:SP: dextrindextrin gigiii hhnn.. 26. SS PHN CPHN CT GLYCOGENT GLYCOGEN GG oligotransferaseoligotransferase PhosphorylasePhosphorylase 1/101/109/109/10 GIPGIPGIPGIP 11--66 glucosidaseglucosidase 1 32 27. HOHOT T NG CNG CA PHOSPHORYLASEA PHOSPHORYLASE CHCH22OHOH HOHO CHCH22OHOH OO OO OO OO RR HH33POPO44 Glycogen (G)n Glucose 1 PGlucose 1 P GG --1 P1 P GlycogenGlycogen (G)