Chương 1 Giới thiệu về Mạng không dây · PDF file•Lịch sử của...

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Transcript of Chương 1 Giới thiệu về Mạng không dây · PDF file•Lịch sử của...

  • ng Thanh Bnh

    Chng 1

    Gii thiu v Mng khng dy

  • Ni dung

    n tp

    Mng v truyn thng

    C bn v mng khng dy

    Lch s ca truyn thng v tuyn

    Cc t chc pht trin chun mng

    Mng khng dy cho tng lai

  • M hnh OSI

  • M hnh TCP/IP

  • MNG V TRUYN THNG

  • Cc thut ng lin quan

  • Truyn thng - Communication

    Truyn thng l qu trnh truyn ti thng tint thc th ny n thc th khc.

    Mt thc th l g?

    Thc th truyn thng tin: Sender /Transmitter

    Thc th nhn thng tin: Receiver

    Transceiver

  • Communication v Network

    Communication Truyn thng

    Vic truyn tn hiu

    Nhng vn quan tm: M ha, giao tip, s tonvn ca tn hiu, ghp knh (Multiplexing),

    Network Mng

    M hnh (topology), kin trc kt ni cc thit b

    Mng ca cc h truyn thng

  • Communication v Network

  • Signal = Function of Time

    Tn hiu l 1 hm theo thi gian. Trc nmngang i din cho thi gian, trc ng i dincho cng tn hiu

    Tn hiu i din cho d liu HOC D liu cm ha bng tn hiu

    Tn hiu l th thc s i trn ng truyn

    Cn phi hiu v tn hiu c th chn loi tnhiu ph hp th hin d liu

  • Phn loi mng truyn thng

  • C BN V MNG KHNG DY

  • nh ngha

    nh ngha Wireless Networks: Wireless: v tuyn, khng dng dy dn

    Mng s dng Sng in t - Electromagnetic Waves (radiowave v/hoc microwave) duy tr knh truyn gia ccthit b

    Truyn thng v tuyn l vic truyn ti thng tin qua 1khong cch m khng cn dy dn lm mi trng truyn

  • M hnh truyn thng khng dy digital

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn cc yu t sau

    Infrastructure

    Mobility

    Scale of network

    Application

    Services

    Access technology

    Standardization

    Bandwith size

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn kin trc (infrastructure)

    Mng c kin trc

    S dng cc node v gateway c dy v khng dy

    Mi node chnh c 1 vai tr c nh ngha trc trongmng

    Mng t bo (cellular network) l mng c kin trc

    WLAN dng access point cng thuc dng ny

    Mng khng c kin trc (ad hoc networks)

    Khng c s sp xp trc

    Mt tp hp ngu nhin cc node c lp vi nhau tothnh 1 mng.

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn chun 3GPP: WCDMA, HSDPA, LTE

    3GPP2: CDMA2000, EV-DO, UMB

    IEEE: IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.16

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn s di ng (Mobility)

    Phn bit Fixed, Portability , Mobility

    Khi u, Internet v mng in thoi c thit k chocc thit b u cui c nh - fixed (static) im kt ni vo mng phi c nh

    Portability (tnh di chuyn c) ng ngha vi vic thayi im kt ni vo mng c thc hin ch khi thit boffline

    Mobility (tnh di ng) ng ngha vi vic thay i imkt ni vo mng c th c thc hin khi thit b vnonline

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn s di ng (Mobility)

    Mng khng dy c nh

    Ngi dng kt ni c xem nh yn 1 ch

    Mng khng dy di ng

    Mt phn trong cc thit b khng dy l di ng

    VD: Cellular network, Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET)

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn phm vi (scope)

    Body Area Networks

    VD: Cm bin c gn vo ngi

    Personal Area Networks

    VD: Home Networking, Bluetooth v ZigBee

    Local Area Networks

    VD: Wireless LAN, WiFi

    Metropolitan Area Networks (Mng th)

    VD: WiMAX

    Wide Area Networks

    VD: Cellular v Satellite networks

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn phm vi

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn loi tn hiu (Signal)

    Lin tc (Continuous) hay tng t (Analog): Ly ttc gi tr bin (amplitude) c th c

    Mng cellular th h c

    S dng iu ch tng t

    S (Digital) hay Ri rc (Discrete) : ch ly 1 tp hpgi tr cng nht nh

    Mng 2G v cc th h sau

    iu ch s

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn loi tn hiu (Signal)

  • Phn loi Mng khng dy

    Da trn rng ca bng thng (channelbandwidth)

    Band l qung tn s c s dng cho knhtruyn.

    Narrowband wireless network

    Mng bng hp

    Broadband wireless network

    Mng bng rng

    VD: UWB, WiMax, LTE,..

  • U V NHC IM CA MNG KHNG DY

  • u im ca Mng khng dy

    Tnh di ng (Mobility)

    T do di chuyn m khng b cn tr, rng buc bidy dn

    Cho php cc cng ty trin khai cc m hnh lm vicph hp v pht huy kh nng ca ngun nhn lc

    Cho php cc nhn cng lm vic theo nhm lu trv truy cp d liu v ti nguyn trn mng

    Tnh ng tin cy (reliability)

    Nguyn nhn ph bin ca vic li truy cp mngtrn mng c dy l li lin quan n dy dn

  • u im ca Mng khng dy

    Ci t d dng v chi ph thp

    S dng cp trong cc ta nh c c th kh khn,trin khai chm v t tin

    Kh nng phc hi sau thm ha (Disasterrecovery)

    Khi c thm ha xy ra, nh qun l c th ti lp hthng nhanh chng hn so vi mng c dy

  • Nhc im ca Mng khng dy

    Xung t (interference) cao hn v tnh ng tincy thp hn

    Tia hng ngoi (infrared) : b tc ng bi nh sngmt tri, cc ngun sinh nhit v cc vt cn vt l

    Tn hiu radio : b chn bi cc vt cn, b can thipbi cc thit b in

    Mi trng pht sng b xung t v mt t nhin

    Hin tng t xung t (multipath)

  • Nhc im ca Mng khng dy

    So vi mng c dy

    Thp hn v: bandwidth, transmission rate

    Cht lng dch v - QoS (Quality of Service) suygim

    Cao hn v: thi gian tr, thi gian thit lp kt ni

    S lng ngi dng tng thng dn n tc truyn gim xung mc rt thp

  • Nhc im ca Mng khng dy

    Cc iu kin hot ng trn mng c tnh dthay i

    Mc mt d liu cao hn do xung t(interference)

    Cng nng lng nhn c t l nghch vikhong cch

    Vic di chuyn ca ngi dng dn n vic mt ktni v/hoc thay i knh truyn thng xuyn

  • Nhc im ca Mng khng dy

    Gii hn v ti nguyn

    pin, nng lc tnh ton, b nh, dung lng a

    Nguy c v sc khe

    Ph tn s kh dng c gii hn

    Tn s cn c qun l v s dng hp l

  • Nhc im ca Mng khng dy

    Kh nng bo mt km hn trn mng c dy

    Ai cng c th truy cp vo mi trng khng dy

    Trm c s c th b gi mo

    ng truyn bao gi cng l ng truyndng chung

    Cn phi c cc c ch truy cp an ton vo hthng

  • ng dng ca Mng khng dy

    GSM, UMTS

    TETRA, ...

  • LCH S TRUYN THNG V TUYN

  • Semaphore

  • Lch s truyn thng v tuyn

    S dng nh sng, c (semaphore), khi, mthanh, 150 BC, tn hiu khi (Hy Lp)

    1794, in bo quang hc (optical telegraph semaphore), Claude Chappe

    Sng in t bt u c pht hin: 1831, Faraday trnh din v cm ng in t

    J. Maxwell (1831-79): l thuyt v trng in t,hm sng (1864)

    H. Hertz (1857-94): trnh din v vic truyn sngin qua khng gian (1886)

  • Lch s truyn thng v tuyn

    1895, Guglielmo Marconi Trnh din v in bo v tuyn Truyn bng sng di, cn mc nng lng

    pht cao (> 200kw)

    1907, Kt ni qua i Ty Dng Trm pht sng ln (anten cao 30 n 100m)

    1915, Truyn tn hiu thoi v tuyn NewYork - San Francisco

    1920, Marconi pht hin sng ngn Phn x ti tng ionosphere Sender v receiver nh hn, pht minh ra

    ng chn khng (vacuum tube) nm 1906,Lee DeForest v Robert von Lieben

  • Lch s truyn thng v tuyn

    1928 Th nghim pht sng TV

    1933 iu tn(E. H. Armstrong)

    1946 Dch v in thoi di ng cng cng u tin 25thnh ph thuc nc M (1 antenna cho 1 thnh ph)

    1976 Bell Mobile Phone service cho TP. New York

    1979 NMT chy bng tn 450MHz (Scandinavi)

    1982 Bt u xy dng chun GSM

    1983 Cung cp dch v AMPS (Advanced Mobile PhoneSystem, analog)

    1992 Trin khai GSM

    2002 Trin khai UMTS

    2012 Trin khai LTE

  • Lch s truyn thng v tuyn

    cellular phones satelliteswireless LANcordless

    phones

    1992:

    GSM

    1994:

    DCS 1800

    2001:

    UMTS/IMT-2000

    CDMA-2000 (USA)

    1987:

    CT1+

    1982:

    Inmarsat-A

    1992:

    Inmarsat-B

    Inmarsat-M

    1998:

    Iridium

    1989:

    CT 2

    1991:

    DECT 199x:

    proprietary

    1997:

    IEEE 802.11

    1999:

    802.11b, Bluetooth

    1988:

    Inmarsat-C

    analog

    digital

    1991:

    D-AMPS

    1991:

    CDMA

    1981:

    NMT 450

    1986:

    NMT 900

    1980:

    CT0

    1984:

    CT1

    1983:

    AMPS

    1993:

    PDC

    2000:

    GPRS2000:

    IEEE 802.11a,g

    2005:

    VoIP-DECT

    2010

    LTE

    2009:

    IEEE 802.11n

    2010

    UMA

  • T vit tt

    NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephone

    DECT: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecom.

    DCS: Digital Cellular System

    CT: Cordless Telephone

    PDC: Pacific Digital Cellular

    UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecom. System

    LTE: Long Term Evolution

    UMA: Universal Mobile Access

  • CC T CHC PHT TRIN CHUN

  • Chun mng khng dy

  • T chc ITU

    ITU (International Telecommunication Union) lmt t chc ca UN vi cu trc sau

  • 3GPP & 3GPP2 l g?

    3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) l shp tc gia nhiu t chc vin thng.

    Mc tiu ca 3GPP l xy dng 1 phin bn 3G cah thng in thoi di ng ton cu Global Systemfor Mobile Communications (GSM) theo c t cad n International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 ca ITU.

    3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2),xy dng 1 chun 3G khc da trn chun IS-95(CDMA), thng c gi l CDMA2000.

  • Cc i tc ca 3GPP & 3GPP2

    3GPP c 6 i tc chnh, lit k di y

  • IEEE l g?

    Vin cc k s in v in t - Institute ofElectrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, c lI-Triple-E) l mt t chc phi li nhun c mctiu pht trin cc cng ngh mi

    IEEE l mt trong nhng t chc nh chunhng u. IEEE thc hin chc nng chun hacc cng ngh thng qua IEEE StandardsAssociation (IEEE-SA).

  • IEEE l g?

    Cc chun ca IEEE c lin qua