Christensen FÄRDIGT

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  • Musikhgskolan Ingesund 671 91 Arvika Tfn 0570-385 00 Fax 0570- 804 38 Info@imh.kau.se www.imh.kau.se

    Tommy Christensen

    Rtt skala blir inte automatiskt en bra improvisation.

    En musikanalytisk studie av fem olika pianosolon spelade av erknda jazzmusiker.

    The right scale is no guarantee of good improvisation.

    A musicological study of five piano solos performed by acclaimed jazz musicians.

    Examensarbete 15 hp Musiklrarprogrammet

    Datum: 14-04-15 Handledare: Ann Sofie Paulander

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    Sammanfattning Examensarbete inom lrarutbildningen Titel: Rtt skala blir inte automatiskt en bra improvisation. En musikanalytisk studie av fem olika pianosolon spelade av erknda jazzmusiker. Frfattare: Tommy Christensen Termin och r: Vt 2014 Kursansvarig institution: Musikhgskolan Ingesund, Karlstads Universitet Handledare: Ann- Sofie Paulander Examinator: Ragnhild Sandberg Jurstrm

    Det finns en hel del litteratur som lr ut jazzimprovisation, men f som visar vilka musi-kaliska strukturer som kan anvndas fr att f det att lta jazzigt. I den hr kvalitativa studien utforskas drfr likheterna mellan fem olika utvalda jazzimprovisationer i pi-ano. I fokus str improvisationernas musikaliska sprk ifrga om musikaliska byggste-nar eller strukturer. Forskningsfrgan lyder: Vilka musikaliska byggstenar eller struk-turer, har fem olika solon i jazzpiano gemensamt? Syftet med studien r att finna likhet-er mellan ngra pianoimprovisationer av knda jazzmusiker. Studien utgr frn feno-menologiskt och hermeneutiskt perspektiv. Resultaten visar att de olika musikerna an-vnder sig av en rad olika specifika koncept som de bygger sina jazzimprovisationer p: bluessprk, side slipping, kromatik och nrmandetoner, ackordstoner, reharmonisering, verlagrade ackord och pentatonik. Det fenomen som synes hlla samman dessa kon-cept r tension and release, som tillsammans med koncepten bidrar till det musikaliska sprk som anvnds inom den hr delen av jazzgenren. Trots att pianisterna synes bygga sina improvisationer p samma koncept, anvnds dock dessa p s pass varierade stt, att improvisationerna upplevs som bde personliga och kreativa. Nyckelord: musik, jazz, piano, improvisation, lrande, fenomenologi, hermeneutik.

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    Abstract Degree project in Music Teacher Education Programme Title: The right scale is no guarantee of good improvisation. A musicological study of five piano solos performed by acclaimed jazz musicians. Author: Tommy Christensen Semester and year: Spring term 2014 Course coordinator institution: Ingesund School of Music, Karlstad university Supervisor: Ann- Sofie Paulander Examiner: Ragnhild Sandberg Jurstrm It is easy to find literature that teaches jazz improvisations, but hard to find any that re-ally shows which musical structures can be used in order to make a sound jazzy. This qualitative study will therefore explore the similarities between five piano-jazz improvi-sations. The music language of the musicians such as the building blocks or struc-ture will be in focus when comparing these improvisations. The research question for this study will therefore be: what musical building blocks or structures have the five solos in jazz piano in common? The aim is to find similarities between some piano im-provisations done by acclaimed jazz musicians. The study will have a phenomenological and hermeneutic approach. The presented result show that the musicians use a range of specific concepts when building their jazz improvisations; blues, side slipping, chromaticism and approach notes, chord tones, reharmonisation, upper structure triads and pentatonics. The conclusive phenomena has been proven to be tension and release, that together with the concept contributes to the music language that is used within this jazz genre. Even though the different pianists seems to use the same concept when building their improvisations, it is in the way they use them in terms of variation, that makes the solos appear personal and creative. Keywords: music, jazz, piano, improvisation, learning, phenomenology, hermeneutic.

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    Innehllsfrteckning FRORD ............................................................................................................................................................. 6 1 INLEDNING .................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.1 INLEDANDE TEXT ......................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.2 PROBLEMFORMULERING, SYFTE OCH FORSKNINGSFRGOR ................................................................................ 8

    2 BAKGRUND .................................................................................................................................................... 9 2.1 LITTERATUR INOM MNESOMRDET ....................................................................................................................... 9 2.1.1 Jazzimprovisation, vad r det? ...................................................................................................................... 9 2.1.2 Betydelsen av att transkribera jazzsolon ................................................................................................. 9 2.1.3 Svrigheter vid inlrning av jazzimprovisation ................................................................................. 10 2.1.4 Vad knnetecknar en bra jazzimprovisation? ................................................................................. 11

    2.2 MUSIKTEORETISKA UTGNGSPUNKTER ............................................................................................................... 12 2.2.1 Intervall ................................................................................................................................................................ 12 2.2.2 Ackord och skalor ............................................................................................................................................. 12 2.2.3 Melodisk analys ................................................................................................................................................. 14 2.2.4 Arpeggion och verlagrade ackord .......................................................................................................... 15 2.2.5 Tension and release ..................................................................................................................................... 15 2.2.6 Spela outside ................................................................................................................................................... 16 2.2.7 Rytmik och timing ............................................................................................................................................ 16

    2.3 VETENSKAPSFILOSOFISKT PERSPEKTIV ................................................................................................................ 17 2.3.1 Fenomenologi och hermeneutik ................................................................................................................. 17 2.3.2 Frfrstelse och tolkning ............................................................................................................................ 18

    3 METODOLOGI OCH METOD ................................................................................................................... 19 3.1 METODOLOGISKA UTGNGSPUNKTER ................................................................................................................... 19 3.2 METOD OCH DESIGN AV STUDIEN .......................................................................................................................... 20 3.2.1 Mitt val av metod .............................................................................................................................................. 20 3.2.2 Pianisterna och de valda improvisationerna i studien .................................................................... 20 3.2.3 Datainsamling ................................................................................................................................................... 21 3.2.4 Bearbetning och analys ................................................................................................................................. 21 3.2.5 Arbetets giltighet och trovrdighet .......................................................................................................... 22

    4 RESULTAT ................................................................................................................................................... 23 4.1 ATT SPELA INSIDE ................................................................................................................................................. 23 4.2 ATT SPELA OUTSIDE ............................................................................................................................................. 24 4.3 ATT SPELA BDE INSIDE OCH OUTSIDE ......................................................................................................... 25 4.3.1 Bluesskalan ......................................................................................................................................................... 25 4.3.2 Reharmoniseringar .......................................................................................................................................... 26 4.3.3 Nrmandetoner och kromatik .................................................................................................................... 26