Chlorinated Water Effects to Human Health

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Sholikhin, Nayu N A et al , 2012 . Chorinated Water Effects to Human Health.

Transcript of Chlorinated Water Effects to Human Health

Problem Based Learning Paper Modul 3 2012 Chlorinated Water Effects to Human Health

Group C: nthony rtono 021111007 021111008 021111009 021111043 021111045 021111079

Dicky Daruanggono Primarizka Ayunda W. Viera Ananda Duatri S. Endah Sih Wilujeng Cornelia Melinda Adi S.

Nayu Nur Annisa Sholikhin 021111080 Irina Fardhani Zahrah Musthofani Aprillia Sonya Federika Febria Rosana Satya Devi Siti Atikah Nadjwa 021111117 021111119 021111118 021111152 021111153 021111154

Faculty of Dentistry Airlangga University 2012 i

PREFACE

We are deeply praising and thankful to our Lord ALLAH SWT. Because of His mercy, this paper can be finished as we are expected. In this paper, we discuss about chlorinated water effects to human health, which is always a problem for people who experienced less use of the environment with good holistic resulting in decreased. This paper was made in order to deepen understanding of chlorine water issues and its effect on the human body with the hope of getting adequate health and excellent balance. In the process of discussing and deepening of the issue, we get the guidance, direction, correction and advice, so we deeply thanks to: 1. Titik Bernianti, drg.,M.Kes, as our responsible person and lecturer in 3rd Problem Based Learning. 2. Sri Yogyarti, drg., M.S as our responsible tutor and lecturer in Group I 3rd Problem Based Learning. We realize that there are still many shortcomings of this paper, both of material and presentation techniques, given our lack of knowledge and experience. So, criticism and suggestions are expected to improve this paper. Hopefully this paper is useful for the readers.

Surabaya, 8rd of April 2012 Editor

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CONTENTS

COVER ............................................................................................................. PREFACE .........................................................................................................

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CONTENTS ..................................................................................................... iii ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................... v CHAPTER 1 FOREWORD ........................................................................... 1 1.1 Background .............................................................................................. 1 1.2 Learning Issues ........................................................................................ 2 1.3 Purpose ..................................................................................................... 2 1.4 Benefits .................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2 THEORITICAL REVIEW. ..................................................... 4 2.1 Definition of Chlorine .............................................................................. 4 2.2 Characteristic of Chlorine ........................................................................ 4 2.2.1 2.2.2 Physical ........................................................................................ 4 Chemical ...................................................................................... 4

2.3 Kind of Chlorine Compound and The Applications ................................ 6 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) ............................................................. 6 Liquid Calcium Chloride (CaCl2 .................................................. 6 Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2) .............................................. 7 Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3) ......................................................... 7 Chlorine Perchlorate (Cl2O4) ...................................................... 8 Organochlorine Compound .......................................................... 8

2.4 Chlorinated Water ..................................................................................... 9 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 Environment Factors .................................................................... 9 Good Effect .................................................................................. 9 Bad Effects ................................................................................... 11 2.4.3.1 Effect on Plants and Animals ........................................... 11 iii

2.4.3.2 Effect on Human Health .................................................. 12 2.4.3.2.1 2.4.3.2.2 Short Term Effects ......................................... 13 Long Term Effects 14

2.5 Host Factors Supporting Chlorine Exposure ........................................... 21 2.5.1 Habits ........................................................................................... 21 2.5.1.1 Eating or drinking ............................................................ 21 2.5.1.2 Showering ......................................................................... 21 2.5.1.3 Washing ........................................................................... 22 2.5.2 Activities ...................................................................................... 22 2.5.2.1 Swimming ........................................................................ 22 2.5.2.2 Fishing .............................................................................. 23 2.5.2.3 Farming ............................................................................ 23 2.6 Solutions .................................................................................................. 24 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 Controlling Host Habits ............................................................... 24 Maintaining Chlorine Percentage in Water .................................. 24 Alternative Ways of Water Treatment Systems ........................... 25 2.6.3.1 Ozone Disinfectants ......................................................... 26 2.6.3.2 UV Disinfectants .............................................................. 28 2.6.3.3 Carbon Treatment Method ............................................... 31 2.6.3.4 Dechlorination .................................................................. 32 CHAPTER 3 CONCEPT MAPPING ........................................................... 37 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION ........................................................................... 39 CHAPTER 5 CLOSING ................................................................................. 44 5.1 Conclusion ................................................................................................. 44 5.2 Recommendation ....................................................................................... 44 REFERENCES ................................................................................................. 45

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ABSTRACT

There are many factors cause available water contaminated by excessive chlorine. Geographical conditions or lack of caring clean environment can decrease fresh water supply in an area. Bad water sources require the region drinking water company to do water treatment system, called chlorination. Industrial area, using and wasting chlorine, also contaminate the ground water with excessive chlorine. Water is an essential matter for life; human habits and activities always contact with water, so it is difficult to avoid the available water perfectly. Host socio-culture aspects interact with agent (chlorine in water) and exacerbate effects of chlorinated water. Characteristic of chlorine is bound with other element easily, it can produces some harmful substances such as acid and THM that effects to human skin, hair, inhale, and teeth health. Chronic disease like cancer and heart disease is potentially happen. High intensity of chlorinated water exposure effects on short and long term diseases. Keywords: Chlorinated water, environment, human lifestyle, effect on human health.

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CHAPTER 1 FOREWORD

1.1 BACKGROUND Chlorine is one of elements that exists on earth and are rarely found in free form. It is a yellow-green, noncombustible gas with a pungent, irritating odor. It is a chemical substance, which has been used in many industries for a long time, especially in the pulp and paper industry and drinking water treatment. It has also been used in making dye, medicine, plastic, solvent, and dry clean. In the sector of energy and electricity, chlorine is used in the cooling water system. Besides, it is also used in household for disinfectant and bleach. In agriculture chlorine, in a form of organochlorine, is also used for pesticide. Although it has many benefits for many aspects of life, chlorine also has adverse effects for human and environment. In industry, due to the lack of condition of chlorines stor ge, it will le d to the le k ge of chlorine g s, which will endanger environment and health. Waste from industrial or household activity containing chlorine has also a potential to damage environment. If it is discharged into the waters, it will pollute the waters and its ecosystems. Moreover, the use of chlorine in agriculture for pesticide, such as dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethan, can cause accumulation of residues on food chains. Due to gas leaks, bad disposal and handling of waste containing chlorine, it can cause high levels of chlorine in the areas. Waters can also be contaminated by chlorine, resulting in high levels of chlorine in the water supply in the areas. Although chlorine has a good effect as disinfectant for water treatment systems, it can be harmful for human health. Chlorine can also easily react with many compounds because of its character as a strong oxidator. In the chlorination process, chlorine is also able to bind with organic compounds in water to form organochlorine compounds, such as trihalomethanes, which are carcinogens in the body.

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