China’s First Civilizations
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Chinas First CivilizationsChapter 7, Section 1, page 224
Chapter 7, Section 1 ObjectivesAfter this lesson, students will be able to:describe how rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape Chinese civilization.explain how rulers known as the Shang became powerful because they controlled land and had strong armies.describe how Chinese rulers claimed the right to rule by a Mandate of Heaven.
Why is China Important?worlds largest populationone of the fastest growing economies in the worldexperiencing major infrastructure growthleader in sciences (computers & mathematics)historically and culturally significantcommunist governmenta new superpower?
Chinas Geography page 224Huang He (Yellow River) flows from Mongolia to the Pacific Oceanparticularly fertile due to loessChang Jiang (Yangtze River) flows east across China and empties into the Yellow Sea
Chinas Geography page 226Less than 1/10 of Chinas land is arable (fit for farming)Himalayas southwestKunlun Shan & Tian Shan western border Gobi & Taklimakan DesertsGobi a cold, rocky desert east of the Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan Mountains
The Shang Dynasty page 226The Huang He valley was the site of the first Chinese civilizations.Xia dynasty (?)Shang dynasty founded c. 1750 B.C.most historians use the rise of this dynasty as the beginning of Chinese civilizationmade the city of Anyang Chinas first capital city
The Shang Dynasty page 226Shang dynastystrong monarchyaristocracy (nobles whose wealth comes from the land they own) made of warlords and officialslarge armyagricultural society (farmers could be pulled for other projects)
Spirits and Ancestors page 227spirits in mountains, rivers, etc.ancestor worshipfamily was central to societybelieved departed ancestors could bring good fortune and good luckofferings made even today
Telling the Future page 228government and religion closely linkedoracle bones first example of Chinese writing
The Chinese Language page 228pictographs characters that stand for objectsideographs a character that joins two or more pictographs to represent an ideaadvantage: people from all over could read = unitydisadvantage: too many characters too remember (needed to know 1,500 to be barely literate)
Shang Artists page 229bronze casting the best-known Shang art form
The Zhou Dynasty page 229Wu Wang led a rebellion against the Shang, and created the Zhou dynasty (1045 B.C. 256 B.C.).dynasty lased for more than 800 yearsdeveloped the idea of the Mandate of Heaven
What Was the Mandate of Heaven? page 230mandate a formal orderMandate of Heaven idea that the king had been chosen by heavenly order to rule; Zhou claimed that principle gave them the right to rulecatches:Dao the proper way kings were expected to rulepeople had the right to overthrow an unjust king or one that has apparently lost the Mandate of Heavendynastic cycle
The Dynastic Cycle in China
New Tools and Trade page 230ironpopulation boomroads and canalscoined money introducedsilk
The Zhou Empire Falls page 231Period of the Warring Statesinvention of the saddle and stirrup allowed for mounted combat
Chapter 7, Section 1 QuestionsBetween which two rivers is the heartland of China found?Why is Chinas arable land limited?What is a dynasty?What were oracle bones and how were they used?What is the Mandate of Heaven and which dynasty used it as a justification for their rise to power?How is the dynastic cycle connected to the Mandate of Heaven?
Life in Ancient ChinaChapter 7, Section 2, page 233
Chapter 7, Section 2 ObjectivesAfter this lesson, students will be able to:describe the three main social classes Chinese society, landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.explain how Chinese philosophies grew out of a need for order in China.
Life in Ancient China page 233Chinese social classestenant farmers people pay rent by giving the landlord a portion of their crops
What was Life Like in a Chinese Family? page 234Family was the basic building block of Chinese society.filial piety practice that requires children to respect their parents and older relativesThe leader of the family was usually the oldest male.
Who Was Confucius? page 236Confucius Chinas first great teacher and thinkergoal: to bring peace to societybasic premise: people needed to have a sense of dutyConfucianism taught that if each person does his or her duty, society as a whole will do well
What Is Daoism? page 238Laozi the Old Master(?) founded Daoismpeople should give up their worldly desiresturn to nature and the Daoturn away from worldly concerns and live in peace with natureDao De Jing
Confucius and Laozi page 238
What Is Legalism? page 239Hanfeizi thought people were naturally evildeveloped Legalism taught that people needed harsh laws and punishment to make them live rightlystrong ruler necessaryaristocrats liked Legalism
Chinese Ethical Systems page 239
Chinese Ethical SystemsConfucianism Social order, harmony, and good government should be based on family relationships. Respect for parents and elders is important to a well ordered society. Education is important to both the welfare of the individual and to society.Daoism The natural order is more important than social order. A universal force guides all things. Human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature.Legalism A highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order. Punishments are useful to maintain order. Thinkers and their ideas should be strictly controlled by the government.
Chapter 7, Section 2 QuestionsWhat is unique about the ancient Chinese social structure?Define filial piety.Name the founders of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.Which philosophy was centered around a strong system of laws and punishments in order to keep society in order?Compare Confucianism and Daoism.
The Qin and Han DynastiesChapter 7, Section 3, page 240
Chapter 7, Section 3 ObjectivesAfter this lesson, students will be able to:describe the harsh methods Qin Shihuangdi used to unify and defend China.describe how people were tested for jobs under the Han dynasty and how new inventions improved life for all Chinese.explain how the Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as Greece and Rome.
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi page 241Period of the Warring States period of violence that made people look for a way to restore orderQin Shihuangdi (sp) First Qin Emperor (221 B.C.)from the state of Qin (China)establishes the Qin Dynasty (221 B.C. 206 B.C.)
A Powerful Ruler page 241Qin Shihuangdibased his rule on the ideas of Legalismeliminated opposition burned books instituted a practice called strengthening the trunk and weakening the branchescreated an autocracy a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner
A Powerful Ruler page 242accomplishmentsset standards for writing, law, currency, weights, and measuresover 4,000 miles of roads constructedirrigation projects improved farm productionearly Great Wall (one we know today built in the Ming Dynasty)
A Powerful Ruler page 242The Terracotta Army
Why Did the People Rebel? page 242Four years after Qin Shihuangdis death, the Qin dynasty was overthrown.farmers, scholars, and aristocrats were all displeased with how he had ruled
The Han Dynasty page 244Liu Bang founded the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. A.D. 220)Han Wudi wanted talented people to work in government; developed the civil service exampopulation reaches 60 million under Han Wudiexpansion policy Martial Emperor
An Era of New Inventions page 245waterwheelsiron drill bits steelpaperrudderadvances in medicineacupuncture treatment that is supposed to ease pain by sticking needles into the skin
The Silk Road page 246Silk Road network of trade routes that stretched from China to southwest AsiaChina exported silk, spices, tea, & porcelainZhang Qian explored areas west of China; brought back stories of the Roman Empire
Chapter 7, Section 3 QuestionsWhich of the doctrines discussed in Section 2 did Qin Shihuangdi follow? Why was the Qin Dynasty overthrown?Who founded the Han Dynasty?What is the purpose of the civil service exam?Give examples of items that the Chinese exported using the Silk Road.
AL COS: AL2, AL2a, AL2b, AL3, AL3a, AL8, AL8b*Photo: The Three Gorges Dam Project. Available from: Encarta Encyclopedia.*Photo: A Shang oracle bone. Available from: http://faculty.sxu.edu/~bathgate/gallery/shang/shang.html*Photo: The Shang dynasty (1570?-1045? BC) arose during the Bronze Age in China. In addition to producing stone tools, such as the mattock and axe (bottom left), the Shang made notable advances in the manufacture of bronze weapons and ritual vessels. The bronze objects shown here include the halberd (top left), the chief weapon in ancient Chinese society, and the yue (top center), used for beheading human sacrifices. Available from: http://encarta.msn.com/media_461518335/shang_dynasty_bronze_objects.htmlPhoto: Shang casting methods. Available from: http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/archae/tfuhbron.htm*AL COS: AL2, AL2a, AL3, AL3a, AL8*Photo: Confucius. Available from: http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~inaasim/Foundations/Keynotes%205.htm*Photo: Laozi. Available from: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/laozi.htm*AL COS: AL2, AL2a, AL3, AL8, AL12
*Photo: Qin Shihuangdi. Available from: http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/bender4/eall131/EAHReadings/module02/m02chinese.html*Photo: Map of the Qin Dynasty. Availa