China and Greece Theme: Order Through Philosophy Lesson 23.

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Transcript of China and Greece Theme: Order Through Philosophy Lesson 23.

  • Slide 1
  • China and Greece Theme: Order Through Philosophy Lesson 23
  • Slide 2
  • Part 1: China
  • Slide 3
  • ID & SIG: Confucianism, Daoism, dynasty, Han Feizi, junzi, legalism, mandate of heaven, Period of the Warring States
  • Slide 4
  • Where we left off in Lesson 11 Dynasty A sequence of powerful leaders in the same family Shang Dynasty 1766 to 1122 B.C. Zhou Dynasty 1122 to 256 B.C.
  • Slide 5
  • Social Hierarchy: Mandate of Heaven Zhou justified their disposition of the Shang by the mandate of heaven Earthly events were closely related to heavenly affairs Heavenly powers granted the right to govern to an especially deserving individual known as the son of heaven Ruler served as a link between heaven and earth
  • Slide 6
  • Social Hierarchy: Mandate of Heaven The ruler had the duty to govern conscientiously, observe high standards of honor and justice, and maintain order and harmony within his realm As long as he did, the heavenly powers would approve his work, all would be in balance, and the ruler would retain his mandate to govern If the ruler failed his duties, balance would be disrupted, chaos would follow, and the displeased heavenly powers would withdraw the mandate and transfer it to a more deserving candidate This principle was maintained by Chinese rulers until the 20 th Century
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  • Decline of the Zhou The Zhou relied on a decentralized administration, entrusting power, authority, and responsibility to subordinates who in return owed allegiance, tribute, and military support to the central government Subordinates gradually established their own bases of power, setting up regional bureaucracies, armies, and tax systems which allowed them to consolidate their rule and exercise their authority The Zhou began to lose control
  • Slide 9
  • Period of the Warring States (403 to 221 B.C.) The late centuries of the Zhou Dynasty brought political confusion to China and led eventually to chaos Territorial princes ignored the central government and used their resources to build, strengthen, and expand their own states They fought ferociously among themselves to become the leader of the new political order Violence and chaos gave rise to the name Period of the Warring States
  • Slide 10
  • Period of the Warring States
  • Slide 11
  • Education In response to this chaos, people began thinking about the nature of society and the proper roles of human beings in society to hopefully identify principles that would restore political and social order Confucianism Daoism Legalism
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  • Education: Confucianism Founded by Kong Fuzi (551-479 B.C.) Known in English as Confucius Thoroughly practical approach Moral, ethical, and political thought Did not address abstruse philosophical or religious questions
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  • Education: Confucianism Thought social harmony arose from the proper ordering of human relationships rather than the establishment of state offices Believed the best way to promote good government was to fill official positions with individuals who were both well educated and extremely conscientious Concentrated on forming junzi (superior individuals) who took a broad view of public affairs and did not allow personal interests to influence their judgments
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  • Education: Confucianism Even more important than advanced education to the ideal government official was a strong sense of moral integrity and a capacity to deliver wise and fair judgments Confucius encouraged his students to cultivate high ethical standards and hone their facilities of analysis and judgment Required social activism Ren An attitude of kindness and benevolence or a sense of humility Courtesy, respectfulness, diligence, and loyalty Li A sense of propriety, which called for individuals to behave in conventionally appropriate fashion Xiao Filial piety (reflective of the high significance of the family in Chinese society)
  • Slide 15
  • Education: Daoism Daoists were the most prominent critics of Confucian activism Considered it pointless to waste time and energy on problems that defied solution Instead, Daoists devoted their energies to reflection and introspection, hoping that they could understand the natural principles that governed the world and learn to live in harmony with them Laozi, founder of Daoism
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  • Education: Daoism Dao means the way, the way of nature, or the way of the cosmos Dao is neither positive or negative It is a supremely passive force that does nothing but accomplishes everything Individuals should tailor their behavior to Daos passive and yielding nature Called for retreating from the world of politics and administration and living a simple, accepting life Chinese character for Dao
  • Slide 17
  • Education: Legalism Ultimately, order was restored through legalism Unlike the Dao, legalists cared nothing about principles governing the world or the place of human beings in nature Practical and efficient approach to statecraft in which the state was strengthened and expanded at all costs Sought to channel as many people as possible into cultivation or military service and discouraged them from careers as merchants, entrepreneurs, scholars, educators, philosophers, poets, or artists
  • Slide 18
  • Education: Legalism Legalism Self-interest must be subordinated to the interests of the state Strict legal regimen that clearly outlined expectations and provided severe, swiftly administered punishment Harsh penalties for even minor infractions
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  • Education: Legalism Collective responsibility before the law Expected all members of a family or community to observe others closely, forestall any illegal activity, and report infractions Failure to do so meant all members of the family or community where subject to punishment along with the violator Unpopular program but eventually restored order and brought about a unified China
  • Slide 20
  • Shang Yang (390 to 338 B.C.) and Han Feizi (280 to 233 B.C.) Yang and Feizi were the chief developers of the legalist doctrine Both served as advisors to the Qin court Both made serious enemies Yang was murdered, his body mutilated, and his family annihilated Feizi was forced to commit suicide
  • Slide 21
  • Legalism: According to Han Feizi ...rewards should be rich and certain so that the people will be attracted by them; punishments should be severe and definite so that the people will fear them; and laws should be uniform and steadfast so that the people will be familiar with them. Consequently, the sovereign should show no wavering in bestowing rewards and grant no pardon in administering punishments, and he should add honor to rewards and disgrace to punishments-- when this is done, then both the worthy and the unworthy will want to exert themselves...
  • Slide 22
  • Qin: Unification Rulers of several regional states adopted elements of the legalist doctrine The most enthusiastic were the Qin in western China (where Yang and Feizi had oversaw the legalist doctrines implementation) The Qin soon dominated their neighbors and imposed centralized rule throughout China Qin only lasted a few years, but their successors, the Han, followed their policy of centralized imperial administration
  • Slide 23
  • How were populations controlled in China?
  • Slide 24
  • Philosophically, as a response to the failed social and political order of the Period of the Warring States Confucianism Cultivate high ethical standards and facilities of analysis and judgment and apply them in a socially active way Daoism Retreat from the world of politics and administration and living a simple, accepting life Legalism Subordinate self-interests to the interests of the state and harshly punish all violations
  • Slide 25
  • Legalism in Action When Rudy Giuliani became mayor of New York City he vowed to clean up crime In five years the overall crime rate was down 50%
  • Slide 26
  • The Broken Window Theory A broken window (or a littered sidewalk or graffiti) does no great harm to a neighborhood if promptly addressed. Left untended, it sends a signal: that no one cares about this neighborhood, that it is a safe place to break things, to litter, to vandalize. Those who engage in such behaviors will feel safe here. And once these minor miscreants have become well established, perhaps it will seem a safe enough neighborhood in which to be openly drunk, in which to beg for money, and possibly extort it. In short the smallest symptoms of antisocial behavior will, left to fester, breed greater and greater crimes, all the way down to murder.
  • Slide 27
  • The Debate Obviously crime went down Critics however argued that in the process civil liberties were curtailed Do you think the trade off is worth it?
  • Slide 28
  • Greek Philosophy Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Others
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  • ID & SIG: Aristotle, Plato, epicureans, stoics, skeptics, Socrates, The Republic
  • Slide 30
  • Greek Philosophy Athens sophisticated and wealthy society provided time for thought All the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there spent their time doing nothing but talking about and listening to the latest ideas. Several great thinkers tried to construct a consistent system of philosophy based purely on human reason Rationally understand human beings and human behavior Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • Slide 31
  • Socrates (469 to 399 B.C.) Turned the course of philosophical enquiry around-- from its earlier focus on natural science, to a focus on ethics or public morality Keenly interested in such subjects as justice, beauty, and goodness Optimistic Knowing the truly good would necessarily direct a person to act in line with this knowledge Human beings can lead honest lives
  • Slide 32
  • Socrates (469 to 399 B.C.) Insisted on the need to reflect on the purposes and goals of life The unexamined life is not worth living. Human beings have an obligation to strive for personal integrity, behave honorably toward others, and work toward construction of a just society
  • Slide 33
  • Socrates (469 to 399 B.C.) Posed questions that encouraged reflection on human issues, particularly on matters of ethics and morality the Socratic method Honor was more important than wealth, fame, or other superficial attributes Scorned those who preferred public accolades to personal integrity
  • Slide 34
  • Socrates (469 to 399 B.C.) Played the role of gadfly, subjecting traditional ethical teachings to critical scrutiny This tactic outraged some of his fellow citizens Socrates was brought to trial on charges of encouraging immorality and corrupting Athenian youth A jury of Athenian citizens found him guilty and condemned him to death Drank a cup of hemlock and died in the company of his friends
  • Slide 35
  • Socrates (469 to 399 B.C.) Death of Socrates by Jacques-Louis David
  • Slide 36
  • Socrates (469 to 399 B.C.) Socrates did not write his thoughts down, but we know them through his disciple Plato Plato wrote a series of dialogues in which Socrates figured as the principal speaker Socrates Teaching
  • Slide 37
  • Plato (427 to 347 B. C.) Plato advanced from recording Socrates views to developing his own systematic vision of the world and human society The Theory of Forms or Ideas
  • Slide 38
  • Plato (427 to 347 B. C.) Plato was frustrated that he couldnt gain satisfactory intellectual control over the world For example, generally speaking, virtue requires one to honor and obey his parents, but if parents are acting illegally, it is the childs duty to denounce the offense and seek punishment. How can we understand virtue as an abstract quality if it is situationally dependent?
  • Slide 39
  • Plato (427 to 347 B. C.) There are two worlds The world we live in The world of Forms or Ideas Our world is a pale and imperfect reflection of the genuine world of Forms or Ideas Only by entering the world of Forms or Ideas can one understand the true nature of virtue and other qualities This world is available only to philosophers who apply their rational faculties to the pursuit of wisdom
  • Slide 40
  • Plato (427 to 347 B. C.) Allegory of the cave Prisoners only see the shadows cast on the wall, not the objects themselves
  • Slide 41
  • Plato (427 to 347 B. C.) In The Republic Plato described the ideal state in which rule was accomplished by philosopher-kings Advocated an intellectual aristocracy The philosophical elite would rule and other less intelligent classes would work at functions for which their talents best suited them
  • Slide 42
  • Aristotle (384 to 322 B.C.) Aristotle started out as a disciple of Plato but came to distrust the Theory of Forms or Ideas Very concrete and real as opposed to Platos abstract concepts Believed philosophers can rely on their senses to provide accurate information about the world and then use reason to sort things out
  • Slide 43
  • Aristotle (384 to 322 B.C.) Devised rigorous rules of logic to construct compelling arguments Logic is how we come to know about things Will have a profound effect on Christian philosophy in medieval Europe, especially through St. Thomas Aquinas Also wrote on biology, physics, and literature Literature should be structured to represent a complete and unified action with a beginning, middle, and end
  • Slide 44
  • Others Epicureans Identified pleasure as the greatest good Skeptics Refused to take strong positions on contentious issues because they doubted the possibility of certain knowledge Stoics Individuals should focus their attention strictly on duties that reason and nature demanded of them In their own way, all three sought to bring individuals to a state of inner peace and tranquility
  • Slide 45
  • How was order maintained in Greece Government Sparta Athens Corinth Philosophy Socrates Plato Aristotle Others
  • Slide 46
  • How was order maintained in Greece? Government Sparta Military means Athens Democratic means Corinth Tyrants
  • Slide 47
  • How was order maintained in Greece? Philosophy Socrates Knowing the truly good would necessarily direct a person to act in line with this knowledge Plato The philosophical elite would rule and other less intelligent classes would work at functions for which their talents best suited them Aristotle Know about things through logic Others Epicureans Identified pleasure as the greatest good Skeptics Refused to take strong positions on contentious issues because they doubted the possibility of certain knowledge Stoics Individuals should focus their attention strictly on duties that reason and nature demanded of them
  • Slide 48
  • Next Lesson Buddhism