Chien luoc-gia

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  • 1. Hieu 37 CHIN LC GI1.Khi nim v cc yu t cn xem xt khi nh gi2.Phng php tip cn tng qut v nh gi3.Cc chin lc nh gi sn phm mi.4.Cc chin lc nh gi phc hp sn phm5.Cc chin lc iu khin gi c6.Nhng thay i v giBi tp tnh hung: Thnh vng qua cnh tranh gi c ca Southwest AirlinesTm tt Xy dng v qun l chin lc gi ng n l iu kin quan trng m bo doanh nghip c th xm nhp v chim lnh c th trng v hot ng kinh doanh c hiu qu cao. Tuy nhin gi c chu s tc ng ca nhiu yu t. S hnh thnh v vn ng ca n rt phc tp. Vic qun tr chin lc gi hp l i hi phi gii quyt nhiu vn tng hp v ng b. Trong chng ny, chng ta s xem xt vic inh gi ca cng ty, nhng tc ng ca vic nh gi, phng php inh gi cho cc sn phm mi cng nh cc chin lc thay i v iu chnh gi c. 1. Khi nim v cc yu t cn xem xt khi nh gi Gi l mt trong 4 bin s quan trng ca marketing mix. Gi ng vai tr quyt nh trong vic mua hng ny hay hng khc i vi ngi tiu th. i vi cng ty gi c v tr quyt nh cnh tranh trn th trng. Vic nh gi sn phm c ngha quan trng i vi doanh nghip v n nh hng trc tip n doanh s v li nhun. Gi c nh nh th no? Cc quyt nh v gi ca cng ty chu nh hng ca mt s yu t ni ti ca cng ty v ca mt s yu t bn ngoi. Nhng yu t ni ti nh hng n cc quyt nh v gi Mc tiu marketing:Hieu 37

2. Hieu 37 Trc khi nh gi, cng ty phi quyt nh xem vi sn phm th cn phi t c iu g. Nu cng ty chn th trng mc tiu v nh v th trng cn thn, th chin lc phi hp marketing bao gm c gi c, s thc hin kh d dng. ng thi , cng ty cn c cc mc tiu khc na. khi mc tiu c xc nh r rng, vic nh gi cng d dng hn. Cc mc tiu ph bin l s tn ti, ti a ha li nhun, ti a ha th phn v dn u v cht lng sn phm. S tn ti: khi cnh tranh khc lit, cng ty gp nhiu kh khn h s coi trng s tn ti nh mc tiu chnh yu. H phi nh gi thp, mi l gi c trang tri cc bin ph v mt s nh ph khc c th tn ti, cm c c mt thi gian nhm vt qua giai on kh khn ny. Ti a ha li nhun: Nhiu cng ty mun ra mt mc gi nhm ti a ha li nhun hin taik. h c lng mc cu v ph tn i lin vi nhng mc gi khc nhau v chn ra mc gi c c li nhun ti a hoc t l doanh thu trn vn u t ti a. Dn u th phn:c cng ty mun t th phn cao nht. h tin rng cng ty no c th phn ln nht s c ph tn thp nht v li nhun v lu di l cao nht. h eo ui th phn bng cch nh gi thp v mt chng trnh phi hp hot ng marketing ng b t c mc tiu ny. Dn u v cht lng sn phm: Mt cng ty c th ly mc tiu dn u v cht lng sn phm trn th trng. thng th iu ny i hi phi ra mc gi cao v ph tn R & D cao. Cc mc tiu khc: Cng ty c th s dng gi t cc mc tiu khc. H c th nh gi thp ngn chn khng cho cc i th tham gia va th trng hoc nh gi ngang i th n nh th trng. Gi c th a ra duy tr s trung thnh v ng h ca gii bn li hoc trnh s can thip ca chnh ph. Gi c th tm thi gim to s p ng nng nhit ca khch hng i vi mt sn phm hoc li ko thm nhiu khch hng n cc ca hiu bn l. Mt sn phm c th nh gi gip cho vic to doanh s ca nhng sn phm khc thuc mt hng ca cc cng ty. Nh th, vic nh gi c th ng vai tr quan trng trong vic hon thnh cc mc tiu ca cng ty nhiu mc khc nhau. Chin lc phi thc marketing: Gi c l mt trong cc cng c thuc phi thc marketing m cng ty s dng t c mc tiu marketing ca mnh. Cc quyt nh v gi phi c phi hp vi nhng quyt nh v mu m, phn phi, c ng cho sn phm hnh thnh mt chng trnh marketing nht qun v c hiu qu. Cc quyt a ra cho nhng khu khc thuc phi thc marketing u c nh hng n nhng quyt nh v gi. Chng han, cc nh sn xut ang s dng nhiu nh bn li v mong rng nhng ngi ny s ng h v c ng cho sn phm ca mnh th c th a vo gi mc li hn cho ccHieu 37 3. Hieu 37 nh bun. quyt nh trn khai mt v tr c cht lng cao s c ngha rng ngi bn phi gi cao hn trang tri cc chi ph cao. Cng ty thng phi nh gia sn phm trc, t mi a ra nhng quyt nh khc thuc phi thc marketing trn c s mc gi mnh mun cho sn phm. Nh vy gi l yu t nh v chnh cho sn phmt, xc nh th trng ca sn phm, i th cnh tranh v mu m. Gi quyt nh c im v ph tn sn phm. Tm li, nh marketing phi xem xt tng phi thc marketing khi nh gi. nu sn phm c nh v da trn nhng yu t phi gi th cc quyt nh v cht lng qung co v phn phi s nh hng mnh ln gi c. nu gi c l yu t nh v chnh th n s nh hng mnh n cc quyt nh khc thuc phi thc marketing . Ni chung cng ty phi xem xt tt c cc quyt nh thuc phi thc marketing chung vi nhau, khi trin cc chng trnh marketing. Ph tn Ph tn to nn cho vic nh gi sn phm. Cng ty mun ra mt mc gi c th trang tri cho mi ph tn v sn xut, phn phi bn sn phm gm c mt t l li hp l cho nhng n lc v ri ro ca mnh.Cng ty phi xem xt cc loi ph tn. nu chi ph ca cng ty cao hn chi ph ca cc nh cnh tranh khi sn xut v bn mt sn phm tng ng, cng ty phi ra mt mc gi cao hn cc i th cnh tranh hoc kim li t hn v phi vo mt th bt li v cnh tranh. Ph tn cng ty gm 2 loi: nh ph l nhng chi ph khng thay i theo khi lng sn xut hay doanh thu. Cc chi ph nh tin thu mt bng, chi ph qun l, khu hao ti sn c nh l nhng chi ph c nh. Khi khi lng sn xut hay khi lng bn tng ln nh ph tnh cho mt n v sn phm gim xung. Bin ph l nhng chi ph thay i trc tip theo khi lng sn xut. khi khi lng sn xut tng tng bin ph s tng theo. bin ph tnh cho mt n v sn phm th khng thay i. Tng ph tn: Bao gm c nh ph ln bin ph. cp iu hnh mun ra mt mc gi t nht s trang tri c cho tng chi ph mt mc sn xut nht nh no .. khi kinh nghim c tch ly cng vic c t chc tt hn, thit b c ci tin v tm c nhng quy trnh sn xut tt hn. Vi khi lng cng ln, cng ty cng tr nn hiu qu hn thc hin c li th quy m. kt qu l chi phsi bnh quan gim xung. T chc nh giHieu 37 4. Hieu 37 Cp lnh o cng ty phi xem ai l ngi chu trch nhim nh gi. cc cng ty nh gi c thng do gii qun tr cao cp nh ra hnm l do phng marketing hay phng kinh doanh. cc cng ty ln vic nh gi thng do cc qun tr vin sn phm hay nhm sn phm x l. cc th trng cng nghip, nhn vin bn hng c php thng lng vi khch hng trong phm vi gi c no trn c s chnh sch v mc tiu v gi do ban qun tr cao cp ra. Trong mt s ngnh m vic nh gi l yu t then cht (hng khng, ng st, du kh...) cc cng ty thng lp thnh ban nh gi. Ban ny thng t di s ch o ca cp qun tr cao nht. Nhng yu t bn ngoi nh hng n cc quyt nh v nh gi: Th trng v nhu cu: Ph tn to nn cho vic lp gi cn th trng v nhu cu th tc cao. C khch hng tiu dng ln khch hng kinh doanh u cn bng ga c ca sn phm v dch v da trn nhng li ch c c t sn phm hay dch v . Nh th, trc khi nh gi, nh marketing phi hiu c mi quan h gia gi c v mc cu i vi sn phm ca mnh. nh gi trong cc th trng khc nhau: B rng ca nh gi ca ng bn thay i khc nhau theo cc th trng khc nhau. th trng cnh tranh thun ty c ngi bn ln ngi mau u chp nhn thi gi th trng. Vic nh gi c bit mang tnh cht thch trong nhng th trng mang tnh c quyn. Nhng cm nhn ca ngi tiu th. Ngi tiu th s l ngi quyt nh xem xt gi ca sn phm c ph hp khng? Khi nh gi cng ty phi xt n nhng cm nhn ca ngu tiu th v gi v nhng cm nhn y nh hng ra sao n cc quyt nh mua hng ca h. Khi ngi tiu th mua mt sn phm, h i mt s gi tr (gi c) ly mt gi tr khc. V vy vic lp gi nh hng theo ngi mua bao hm chuyn hiu c gi tr ngi tiu dng mun c qua nhng li ch h nhn c t sn phm v chuyn ra mt mc gi c ph hp vi gi tr . Cc li ch bao gm c hu hnh v v hnh. Khi mt ngi tiu dng mua mt ba n mt nh hng sang trng th vic tnh gi tr cc mn n trong ba n tht d dng. Th nhng tnh c gi tr ca nhng iu hi long khc nh khu v, khung cnh thanh lch, s tha mi, s chuyn tr, a v,... th qu l rt kh khn ngay c i vi chnh ngi tiu dng. V nhng gi tr ny s thay i theo nhng ngi tiu dng khc nhau v theo nhng hon cnh khc nhau. Nh th, cng ty thng thy rng kh o lng c gi tr m khch hng s gn cho sn phm ca mnh, mc d vy ngi tiu dng v tnh hay hu , u ang s dng nhng gi tr ny nh gi mc gi ca mt sn phm. nu ngi tiu th cm thy gi c cao hn gi tr ca sn phm h s khng mua sn phm .Hieu 37 5. Hieu 37 Cc nh marketing phi c gng phn tch nhng ng c ca ngi tiu th trong vic mua sn phm v ra gi c ph hp vi nhng cm nhn ca h v gi tr sn phm. v ngi tiu th thay i cc gi tr m h dnh cho nhng c im sn phm khc nhau, nn cc nh lm marketing thng thay i cc chin lc lp gi i vi nhng khc tuyn gi c khc nhau. H cng hin nhng kt hp c im, tnh cht sn phm khc nhau cho nhng mc gi khc nhau. Vic nh gi nh hng theo ngi mua ngha l nh lm marketing khng ch thit k, sn xut ra sn phm a ra chng trnh marketing ri c th m nh gi. Mun nh gi c hiu qu cn bt u bng s phn tch nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng v nhng cm nhn v gi ca h. Gi c phi c xem xt cng vi nhng yu t bin i khc thuc phi thc marketing, trc khi ra chng trnh marketing. Phn tch mi quan h gi c- nhu cu: Mi mc gi m cng ty c th a ra u dn n mt mc cu khc nhau. Thng thng nhu cu v gi c c t l nghch tc l gi cng cao, sc cu cng thp v ngc li. Cn xc nh co gin ca cu theo gi c.Gi s nhu cu gim i 10% khi ngi bn tng gi 2%. co gin ca cu s l 5. Nu sc cu gim i 2% vi mc tng gi 2%, co gin l 1. Trong trng hp ny, doanh s ca ngi bn vn y nguyn, khng i. nu nhu cu gim i 1% khi gi c tng ln 2% co gin l 1/2. Sc cu co gin t , ngi bn d tng gi. Nu nhu cu co gin nhiu, ngi bn s ngh n chuyn h gi. Mt mc gi thp hn s dn n tng doanh thu cao hn. Cnh tranh. Gi c ca i th cnh tranh v phn ng ca h v gi nh hng khng nh n vic nh gi ca cng ty. Ngi tiu dng nh gi v gi tr v gi c ca mt sn phm da trn nhng gi c v gi tr ca sn phm tng ng. chin lc nh gi ca cng ty cng c th nh hng n s cnh tranh. Mt chin lc gi cao, mc li cao, c th thu ht s cnh tranh, trong khi mt chin lc gi thp, mc li thp c th lm nn cc i th cnh tranh hay lm h rt lui khi th trng. Cng ty cn bit gi c v cht lng ca i th. iu ny c th thc hin c bng nhiu cch. Cng ty c th c ngi i kho gi v so snh cc sn phm ca pha cnh tranh. Cng ty cHieu 37 6. Hieu 37 th kim bng gi ca i th, tm mua thit b ca h v phn tch. Cng ty c th hi ngi mua xem h cm nhn th no v gi c v cht lng sn phm ca i th cnh tranh. Mt khi cng ty bit r gi c v cc cng hin ca nhng i th cnh tranh, cng ty c th s dng n nh mt im nh hng cho vic nh gi ca mnh. nu sn phm ca mnh tng t sn phm ca mt i th quan trng, cng ty phi st gi vi cc i th y, khng th s b mt doanh s. Nu sn phm ca mnh tuyt hn, cng ty c th gi cao hn i th. Tuy nhin, cng ty phi thc c rng cc i th cnh tranh cng c th thay i gi ca h i li vi gi ca cng ty. v c bn, cng ty s s dng nh v sn phm ca mnh tng quan vi sn phm ca i th cnh tranh. Cc yu t bn ngoi khc Khi nh gi, cng ty cng phi xt n nhng yu t khc thuc mi trng bn ngoi ca mnh chng hn, tnh hnh kinh t c th c mt tc ng mnh n hiu nng ca cc chin lc nh gi khc nhau. Cc yu t kinh t nh lm pht, tng trng hay suy