Chien Luoc

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Chuong 10 Chien Luoc

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Chng 10 : CHIN LC CNH TRANH V PHNG HNG CHIN LC CHO NGNH DU LCH V CC T CHC DU LCHTrong chng ny, chng ti s gii thiu n cc bn hai kha cnh mi ca hnh thc chin lc : Chin lc cnh tranh Phng hng chin lc.V c hai cu hi c t ra y l : Bng cch no chng ta c th c c mc li th vt tri hn so vi cc i th, ci m h tng t c? Nhng sn phm v cc dch v no nn c pht trin trn th trng?Chng ny tp trung vo hai kha cnh chnh ca li th cnh tranh l : v th cnh tranh v nng lc ct li.Vic tip cn vi vn v th cnh tranh phn ln l da vo m hnh chin lc chung ca Porter. Cn nng lc ct li th n s gii thch cho li th cnh tranh da trn qu trnh tm hiu v pht trin nng lc ct li ca t chc. C ngha l da vo nng lc ct li chng ta s tm ra c li th cnh tranh cho chnh doanh nghip ca mnh. ( c hc chng 3 )Trn thc t th chng ta s thy c rng hai vn ny s khng ng c lp m chng li b sung v h tr cho nhau. Lc u hai vn ny c thc hin mt cch ring bit nhng sau ngi ta nhn ra rng dng nh c mt s lin kt no nn kt hp s dng chng vi nhau .ng thi trong chng ny, chng ta s s dng ma trn Ansoff gii thch cho vic lm th no duy tr v pht trin cc phng hng chin lc c c li th cnh tranh cho cc t chc.1. Mc tiu chng hc : Gii thch v khi nim ca li th cnh tranh. M t v nh gi c m hnh chin lc chung ca Porter M t v nh gi nhng chin lc qua v cc ni dung chin lc cnh tranh v du lch ca ng Aulia Poon. Gii thch v khi nim ca chin lc hn hp Gii thch v vai tr ca cc nng lc ct li v cc nng lc c bit trong tin trnh to ra li th cnh tranh. Gii thch c vai tr ca chui gi tr trong vic lien kt gia cc nng lc ct li v cc chin lc chung. Nhn thy c phng hng chin lc sn i vi cac t chc. Nhn ra c u l nhng nng lc ct li v chin lc c th c p dng. Cung cp nhng v d minh ha v cc phng hng chin lc v chin lc cnh tranh trong lnh vc du lch.2. Chin lc cnh tranh :Chin lc cnh tranh c lin quan ti vic da vo b phn kinh doanh chin lc, ni c th t c li th cnh tranh mnh trn khc th trng m n chn. i vi cc dch v cng cng hay cc c quan ca nh nc nh vn phng du lch, vin bo tng, khu trin lm, i tng nim, .th mi lin quan ny c gi tr tng ng. y, mi lin quan c th c nhn mnh da trn vic, t chc chn cch duy tr cht lng dch v ca n trong mc cho php ca ngn sch hoc da trn vic cung cp gi tr tt nht cho cc khch hng.3. Cc chin lc chung ca Michael Porter : Gii thiu :C l cch gii thch ni ting v lu i nht ca ni dung li th cnh tranh l gii thch ca ng Porter trong m hnh chin lc ca ng. Mc d trong nhng nm gn y m hnh ny c nhiu nghi vn, nhng n vn a cho cc doanh nghip thy c bn cht bn trong ca qu trnh cnh tranh. M hnh v nhng gii hn ca n th c xem xt trong phn ny. N cung cp cho cc t chc mt m hnh v bt buc cc nh qun l phi suy ngh v nn tng c bn , ci m h ang n lc lm m cnh tranh.Theo nh m hnh Porter (1985), li th cnh tranh s tng ln t vic la chn chin lc chung, ci m ph hp nht vi mi trng cnh tranh ca t chc . C 3 cch thc chnh : S khc bit : to cho khch hng mt ci cm nhn rng i vi mt sn phm cao cp hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh th n xng ng nhn c mt mc gi cao hn. Dn u v chi ph : c c mc chi ph sn xut thp nht i vi mt sn phm thu li c li nhun mc trn trung bnh mc d gi bn c tnh di mc trung bnh ( gi thp ) S tp trung : s dng s khc bit hoc l chin lc dn u v chi ph trong mt phn khc th trng nh.4. M hnh chin lc chung ca Porter : ( anh sn k gim em hai ci bng nha )Porter ch ra rng mt t chc phi to ra hai quyt nh then cht trn chin lc ca chnh mnh : Mt chin lc c nn chn to ra s khc bit hoc dn u v chi ph hay khng ? Phm vi ca chin lc nn rng hay hp ?

Cost leader Differentiation Cost focus Differentiation focus

5. Chin lc dn u v chi ph :Chin lc dn u v chi ph th da vo vic qun l v t chc kinh doanh trong cc hot ng mun tng thm gi tr ca mt t chc to ra chi ph sn xut cho mt sn phm l thp nht. C mt vi li ch tim nng khi thc thi chin lc ny : mt vi li ch tim nng khi tin hnh chin lc dn u v chi ph : Kim c li nhun cao hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh, bi v chi ph thp hn, mc d gi ca sn phm l bng, hoc thm ch l thp hn cc i th. Cho php gia tng c v vic bn v m rng th phn thng qua vic gim gi bn thp hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh C th bc vo mt th trng mi thng qua vic gim gi bn thp hn so vi cc i th cnh tranh C c mt gi tr c bit trong mt th trng, ni m ngi tiu dung b hp dn bi gi sn phm ca doanh nghip. To thm mt ro cn mi cho cc t chc ang mong mun gia nhp vo ngnh cng nghip .phn tch chui gi tr l trng tm ( trong qu trnh thc thi chnh sch ) vic nhn dng c ni tit kim chi ph c th c to ra cc giai on khc nhau trong chui gi tr v mi lin kt gia bn trong v bn ngoi ca n.Mt chin lc dn u v chi ph thnh cng l ci c th da trn mt s c trng thuc v t chc. Vic t c v tr dn u v ch ph ph thuc vo vic sp xp cc hot ng ca chui gi tr. Sau y l mt vi v d v cch thc c th c t c vic tit kim chi ph : Gim cc chi ph bng vic sao chp hn l bt tay vo thit k c trng cho mt sn phm. V d, ngi iu hnh tour c th sao chp lch trnh ca mt tour du lch c sn trn cc trang web ca i th. S dng ngun nguyn liu u vo vi gi r. V d : hng hng khng gi r EasyJet h thp cc chi ph xung, bng vic thay th cc ngun ti nguyn trong cng tc iu hnh, di hnh thc l cng ngh my tnh thay cho yu t con ngi ci m c chi ph t hn nhiu, thng qua vic s dng Internet nh l ngun ti nguyn ch yu ca n. Vic sn xut cc sn phm vi gi r, khng c tnh cu k cao, th s gim c chi ph sn xut v nng cao nng sut lao ng. V d cc hng hng khng gi r nh Southwest M v Ryanair, easyJet, Go v Buzz Anh loi b nhng c tnh ph ca mt sn phm, v vy c th gim c cc chi ph v phn b nhn s v cc chi ph khc. Tin hnh cc hnh thc kinh doanh c tnh quy m, y l hnh thc da trn vic xc tin v qung co, n cho php vic u t vi chi ph c nh cao v cng ngh hin i, c th t c doanh s hng bn cao trong mt thi gian di. V d, trang web LastMinute.com qung b mnh m website gn y ca h trong cc giai on ban u, iu ny cho php n tng tin vn u t v c th t c v tr dn u th trng trong khu vc hot ng ca n, t n cng c php u t mnh tay vo vic pht trin cng ngh ca chnh mnh. S dng hnh thc chi tr vi khi lng ln c c cc mc gim gi thng qua vic mua hng ha vi s lng ln, nh cc yu cu v ch tro, vn chuyn. V d, Tui pht trin ln ti mt v tr u vit so vi cc cng ty iu hnh tour chu u, v th n c php ngh mt mc gi thp hn i vi cc yu t u vo so vi cc i th cnh tranh nh hn. Xc nh v tr cng phm vi hot ng thch hp c th gim c chi ph hoc c s gip ca chnh ph hay c sn s tr cp. V d nh cc cng ty ca British Airway c tr s t ti cc vng ngoi bin ca nc Anh nh l Newcastle va Glasgow, ni c sn ngun lao ng gi r kh di do, ng thi y cng l ni c chnh ph vin tr nn mc thu tnh cho cc doanh nghip khng cao. Gi li nhng thnh vin c kinh nghim . Tiu chun ha sn phm hoc ngun nguyn liu u vo.6 Chin lc to s khc bit :Mt chin lc to s khc bit l c s thuyt phc khch hng v 1 sn phm cht lng cao bng 1 vi phng php c a ra bi nhng nh cnh tranh. S khc bit c th to thm sn phm c bit hoc n gin l to thm nhng khch hng tim nng.Nhng li ch chnh mang li cho vic kinh doanh t mt chin lc to s khc bit thnh cng l: Nhng sn phm ca chin lc ny s a ra 1 mc gi trung bnh. Yu cu sn phm ca chin lc s c gi mm hn nhng sn phm ca i th cnh tranh. Li nhun trung bnh kim c cao hn. To kh khn cho 1 ngnh kinh doanh mi mun thm nhp vo th trng.Mt ngnh KD mun to s khc bit s t chc 1 chui nhng hot ng c gi tr nhm to ra nhng sn phm c tnh khc bit v to cho KH tim nng c s cm nhn cao v s khc bit c th thnh cng bng nhng phng php: To SP c cht lng cao hn i th cnh tranh bng thit k, cng ngh, hiu sut.VD: 2 hng bay ca Anh v Php c th bay n Atlantic di 4 gi v h c nhng my bay vi tc siu m Concorde. a ra nhng dch v cao cp. VD: H thng khch sn Mandarin-Oriental to ra im khc bit bng cch mang n nhng dch v cao cp cho KH, iu ny thnh cng da trn t l cao t nhn vin em n cho KH. phng tin tip cn nhng knh phn phi cao cp. VD: thit lp 1 chui i l du lch pht trin 1 h thng ca thng hiu nhng ni bn l ch cht, dnh cho 1 ngnh mi v ph tn nhiu. To 1 thng hiu mnh thng qua thit k, qung co, i mi, nhng chng trnh theo thng l. VD: s pht trin v chng trnh bay thng l ln nht th gii ca hng bay M to ra lng trung thnh ca hnh khch i vi thng hiu ny. To ra tnh c trng hoc nng cp sn phm.VD: I love New York, Glasgows Miles Better l nhng v d thnh cng v s nng cp lm ni bt tnh c trng ca nhng SP tim nng.Mt chin lc to s khc bit l im nhn trong s i mi, thit k, tm kim v s pht trin, nhn bit nhu cu c bit ca khch v tip th. ni v s khc bit l trong mt ca khch hng l khng c s phng i. N c tranh lun thng l tn thng hiu hay du hiu nhn bit v thng hiu, l im ni bt ca SP hn l 1 SP cao cp thc s.VD: Gi nhng k ngh ca thi trang St Tropez min Nam nc Php hoc Marbelle Costa del Sol Ty Ban Nha a ra nhng gi hp dn da trn nhng khu ngh dng ging nhau v uy tn ca h l tt hn.Mt chin lc to s khc bit c dng gim gi chm v nhu cu SP n khi gi ca n c th tng da trn nhng i th canh tranh ma khng gim tc bn hng, v vy to ra li nhun trn mc trung bnh.VD: S khc bit nhng khch sn Hyatt Regency. Tp on Hyatt, c s chnh Chicago, khch sn u tin ca tp on thnh lp nm 1957.Hin nay cng ty qun l hn 200 KS M v nhiu nc khc. Hyatt Regency l thng hiu ct li ca cng ty, iu hnh mt lng ln nhng khch sn quc t cao cp cnh tranh khch hng vi Ritz-Carlton, Shangri-la v Regent International Hotels. Nm 1967, tp on Hyatt m KS tm tht u tin v nhn c s ch ng k. Hyatt Regency Atlanta ni bt 1 thp tm tht vi 21 tng, kin trc ca KS rt c ngha v to n tng su sc. Nhim v kh khn i vi nhng kin trc s l khng c thi gian loi b thm khng gian nhng thay vo l to ln v m rng khu vc cng cng. kin tm tht do Hyatt Regency Hotels a ra t khu vc Kota Kinnabalu( Sabah, Malaysia) n Chicago OHare Airport v San Francisco. Mc d thit k tm tht hin nay khng c tt c cc KS Hyatt Regency.Chui KS ny vn duy tr c tm nh hng t tnh sng to v i mi v kin trc.7 Chin lc tp trung:Mt chin lc tp trung l hng n 1 phn th trng dnh cho 1 SP hn l ton b TT. Mt nhm KH c bit c xc nh da trn c s v tui, thu nhp, phong cch sng, a l, khc na l nhng c tnh v nhn khu hc c trng hoc nhng khon li nhun ln hn t nhng SP du lch. Trong 1 on TT ca 1 ngnh KD thc hin 1 l da trn chi ph chnh, 1 l chin lc to s khc bit.Nhng li ch mang li t chin lc tp trung : i hi s u t thp hn, so snh vi chin lc hng n ton b TT. To ra s c bit v hiu bit tt hn v TT ang p ng nhu cu. Mang n 1 TT mi c chi ph thp v n gin hn.Mt chin lc tp trung i hi : Xc