Chemistry Form 4 Notes

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  • 8/12/2019 Chemistry Form 4 Notes




    1. To determine melting point

    Water bat ! to en"#re #ni$orm eatin% &'ot %ra( ! ) ! a*i" +Start at ,0 oC-.

    2. The kinetic theory of matter+"o'id "o'id !'i/#id 'i/#id 'i/#id%a" %a"- Matter i" made #( o$ tin) and di"rete (arti'e" +atom" ion" or mo'e#'e"- tere i" "(ae beteen te"e

    (arti'e".a- arran%ement o$ (arti'e"(a3 'o"e') to%eter order') arran%ement $ar a(art $rom ea oterb- Mo4ement o$ (arti'e"4ibrate" rotate "'o') ra(id') 4i%oro#"') random').

    - 3ineti ener%) ontentd- an%e in ener%) ontente- $ore o$ attration"tron% ea3 ea3er


    5ra( "o" the heating curveo$ e'ement 6.Decri!ete %ra( in term" o$ tate of matter particle arrangementand change in energy.

    "ample an#er:

    "tage "tate of matter Particle arrangement Change in energy

    to! t1 7i/#id Te (arti'e" are 'o"e to ea oter.Te (arti'e" arran%ement i" not order').

    Te 3ineti ener%) inrea"e"

    t1 t2 7i/#id !


    Some o$ (arti'e" are 'o"e to ea oter

    and "ome $ar a(art.Te (arti'e" arran%ement i" not order').

    Te 3ineti ener%) i" on"tant

    t2! t8 5a"eo#" Te (arti'e" are $ar aa) $rom ea oter.Te (arti'e" arran%ement i" not order').

    Te 3ineti ener%) inrea"e"

    8. Diffuion! te mo4ement o$ particle+atom9ion"9mo'e#'e- o$ "#b"tane in beteen te (arti'e" o$anoter "#b"tane 9 $rom i%') onentrated area to 'e"" onentrated area. 5a" : 'i/#id : "o'id;. $otope! are atomo$ te "ame e'ement +"ame n#mber o$ (roton- it di$$erent n#mber o$

    ne#tron"9n#'eon n#mber.



    Time " to t1 t2 t8

    %oiling point


  • 8/12/2019 Chemistry Form 4 Notes



    E*am('e< Com(are atom &2'and atom &() * *

    Atom ' )&roton n#mber = =>o. o$ e'etron = =?a'ene e'etron ; ;

    >#mber o$ ne#tron 9 n#'eon n#mber =9 12 @ 91;Cemia' (ro(ertie" "imi'ar &)"ia' (ro(ertie" di$$erent>o. o$ o#(ied "e'' "imi'ar


    10 Empirical formula< emia' $orm#'a tat "o" te "im('e"t o'e n#mber ratio o$ atom" o$ ea e'ement in a om(o#nd CH2

    2. Molecular formula< a emia' $orm#'a tat "o" te at#a' n#mber o$ atom" o$ ea e'ement tat i" (re"ent in a mo'e#'e o$ te om(o#nd C2H(

    a- nreati4e meta' ! reation o*ide meta' it)dro%en %a" +C#O &bO SnO -!1 Diagram

    Reati4e meta' + M% Zn ! b#rn in e*e"" o*)%en 9air - ! more reati4e tan H2

    c1 Proceure

    Wei% and reord te ma"" o$ omb#"tion t#beit (ore'ain di"

    Add a "(at#'a o$ o((er +II- o*ide on te(ore'ain di". Wei% te t#be a%ain. A''o )dro%en %a" $'o into te t#be $or , ! 10min#te". B#rn te e*e"" )dro%en. Heat o((er +II- o*ide trongly0 T#rn o$$ te $'ame en !lack oli turn !ro#nom('ete'). Contin#e te $'o o$ )dro%en #nti' te "et o$a((arat#" oo' don to room tem(erat#re. Wei% te omb#"tion t#be it it" ontent.

    Repeat te (roe"" eatin% oo'in% andei%in% #nti' a on"tant ma"" i" obtained andreord.

    3eighand reord a r#ib'e it it" 'id CleanM% ribbon it "and (a(er ten oi' teM% ribbon and ('ae into te r#ib'e.3eighand

    reord. Heat trongly4 Wen M% ribbon "tart to b#rn o4er te r#ib'eit 'id. ,ift 5 raiete 'id at interval. Wen te b#rnin% i" om('ete remo4e te 'id andeat "tron%').A''o te r#ib'e to cool o#n.3eighand reord te r#ib'e it ontent and'id.Repeat te (roe"" eatin% oo'in% and ei%in%

    #nti' a on"tant ma"" i" obtained and reord. .!ervation< Wite $#me 9 "o'id $ormed

    Reult :

    omb#"tion t#be it (ore'ain di" a % omb#"tion t#be it (ore'ain di" o((er +II-o*ide b %omb#"tion t#be it (ore'ain di" o((er % ma"" o$ o((er 6 c4 a1 g 7 Ma"" o$ o*)%en 6 !4 c 1 g

    ma"" o$ r#ib'e 'id a% ma"" o$ r#ib'e 'id M% ! % ma"" o$ r#ib'e 'id ma%ne"i#m o*ide c % ma"" o$ M% + ! 8 a 1 g4 ma"" o$ o*)%en + c 8 !1 g







  • 8/12/2019 Chemistry Form 4 Notes



    Calculation:E'ement 9 atom C# O

    Ma"" +%- * )>#mber o$ mo'e * 9 =; ) 9 1=Sim('e"t ratio o$ mo'e

    E'ement 9 atom M% OMa"" +%- * )>#mber o$ mo'e * 9 2; ) 9 1=Sim('e"t ratio o$ mo'e

    Precaution :

    &0 The flo# of H2mut !e continuou uringcooling 8 to prevent hot copper metal from


    20 Allo# hyrogen ga flo# into the tu!e for 8

    &; minute to unure air totally remove. Themixture H2an air may caue an exploion0

    8. To determine a'' air tota'') remo4ed o''et teair and ('ae 'i%ted "('inter te %a" b#rn

    ;. Zn 2HC' ZnC'2 H2,. An)dro#" a'i#m 'oride ! to dr) te H2%a".

    =. C#O H2 C# H2O

    Precaution :

    1. CleanM% ribbon it "and (a(er to remo4e te'a)er o$ o*ide on it" "#r$ae.2. ,ift 5 raiete 'id at interval to allo# air in+0Wen M% ribbon "tart to b#rn o4er te r#ib'eit 'id to a4oid te ite $#me (rod#ed $rombein% e"a(e to te air.;. Repeat te (roe"" eatin% oo'in% andei%in%to make ure all magneium icompletely reacte #ith oxygen0

    0 2Mg ? .2 2Mg.

    8. Ba"ed on te to $orm#'ae >a2O C#I+a- State te oxiation num!er$or "odi#m and o((er.+b- >ame bot te om(o#nd ba"ed on I&AC nomen'at#re ")"tem.+- E*('ain te di$$erene beteen te name" o$ te to om(o#nd" ba"ed on $/PAC nomenclature


    "ample an#er:

    @a2. Cu$O*idation n#mber $or"odi#m and o((er

    1 1

    I&AC >omen'at#re Sodi#m o*ide Co((er +I- iodideRea"on Doe" not a4e roman num!er

    bea#"e "odi#m a" only oneo*idation n#mber

    Ha" roman n#mber bea#"eo((er a" more than oneo*idation n#mber


    1. E*('ain te $o''oin% "tatement" re$errin% to te e'etron arran%ement o$ te e'ement".

    +a- Te e'ement" o$ 5ro#( [email protected] are unreativeand e*i"t a" monoatomic(arti'e" +8 mar3"-

    The point are:

    +D#('et 9otet- e'etron arran%ement. >o tenden) to donate ae(t "are e'etron" Remain a" iniviual particle


  • 8/12/2019 Chemistry Form 4 Notes



    +b- Te reati4it) o$ roup $e'ement" increae don te %ro#( erea" te reati4it) o$ roup&B e'ement" ecreaedon te %ro#(. +12 mar3"-

    The point are:

    Explanation roup $ roup &B

    1 Can%e in (roton n#mber Inrea"e" Inrea"e"

    2 Can%e in n#mber o$ e'etron" and e'etron $i''ed "e''" Inrea"e" Inrea"e"8 Can%e in atomi "ie9radi#"9diameter Inrea"e" Inrea"e"; Stren%t o$ e'etro"tati attration beteen n#'e#" and

    4a'ene e'etronDerea"e" 9ea3er Derea"e" 9ea3er

    , Tenden) to Re'ea"e" e'etroninrea"e"

    Attrat t9 ae(te'etron derea"e"

    = To beome &o"iti4e ion >e%ati4e ion

    F Reati4it) Inrea"e" Derea"e"

    +2- E*('ain o te me'tin% (oint o$ roup & e'ement" change o#n the group+; mar3"- ecreae%rad#a'')Reaon

    atomi "ie inrea"e" metallic !oningbeteen te atom" beome ea3er 7e"" ener%) i" re/#ired 9 needed to o4erome ti" meta''i bondin%.

    +8- Chemical propertie of element in group &B

    I Reation it ater C'2 H2O HC' HOC'II Reation it "odi#m )dro*ide C'2 2>aOH >aC' >aOC' H2OIII Reation it iron 8C'2 2Ge 2GeC'8+bron "o'id-

    E*am('e< Comparete reati4it) o$ reation" beteen 'orine and bromine it iron. Diagram $$$

    Reaction Reactant .!ervation

    A Iron 'orine %a" Te ot iron oo' i%nite" ra(id') it a bri%t $'ame.A bron "o'id i" $ormed.

    B Iron bromine %a" Te ot iron oo' %'o" moderate') it $a"t.A bron "o'id i" $ormed.

    "ample an#er:

    a- Cemia' e/#ation< 8C'2 2Ge 2GeC'8b- Te reactivityo$ reation A i" i%er tan reation B.- Te atomic i9eo$ 'orine i" maller tan bromine.d- Te force of attraction of the nucleu to#ar the electron are tronger.


    C'orine %a"

    "oium hyroxie olution

    "oa limeHot iron oo'HC' +on"- KMnO;+"-


    $$$ $$

  • 8/12/2019 Chemistry Form 4 Notes



    e- It i" eaier$or 'orine atom to attract5receivee'etron.

    +;- Acro perio + atomi radi#" +atomi "ie- derea"e" 9 electronegativityinrea"e". Explain0

    a- &roton n#mber inrea"e" b) one #nit.b- Te n#mber o$ 4a'ene e'etron" in ea atom inrea"e".- &o"iti4e ar%e o$ te n#'e#" inrea"e" t#"

    d- >#'ei attration on 4a'ene e'etron inrea"e".e- Atomi radi#" +atomi "ie- derea"e"$- Tenden) to reei4e e'etron inrea"e" +to $orm ne%ati4e ion- t#" electronegativity increae.

    +,- Cemia' (ro(ertie" o$ the oxie of elementaro"" &eriod 8 an%e" from !aic oxie to amphotericoxie to aciic oxie0

    Ba"i o*ide ! "odi#m o*ide +>a2O-Am(oteri o*ide ! A'#mini#m o*ide +A'2O8-Aidi o*ide ! "#'(#r dio*ide SO2

    CHEPTER : CHEM$CA, %[email protected]

    +a- 5ro#( 1 e'ement" reat it 5ro#( 1F e'ement" to (rod#e om(o#nd" tat a4e high melting point0+; mar3"-

    The point are:

    $onic compoun(rod#ed Bea#"e in4o'4e tranfer of electronbeteen meta' atom and non meta' atom. Meta' atom donate" 4a'ene e'etron to $orm (o"iti4e ion non meta' atom ae(t" e'etron to

    ne%ati4e ion. Te oppoitelyar%ed ionare e'd to%eter b) trong electrotatic force0 More heat energyi" needed to overcomete "tron% $ore o$ attration.

    -ormation of ionic compoun 6metal =roup &72 &+> an non metal = roup &(7 &7 &* &B>1

    "ample an#er:

    1. E'etron arran%ement o$ atom 6 @a 7 20& Cl 200B 1 55 valence electron2. To aie4e "tab'e 9 otet e'etron arran%ement8. Atom 6 @a- re'ea"e"one 9 valencee'etron to $orm "odi#m ion >a

    ;. Half e

  • 8/12/2019 Chemistry Form 4 Notes



    Compare the phyical propertie of covalent an ionic compoun

    Propertie Covalent compoun 6 naphthalene1 $onic compoun 6 oium chlorie1

    Me'tin% andboi'in%

    'o on"i"t o$ molecule

    ea3 inter molecular force!et#een mole