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Transcript of Chapter 9 Transport passenger transport was 611.25 billion passenger-kilometers (up 1.1 percent). In...

  • “Statistical Handbook of Japan 2020” by Statistics Bureau, Japan

    Chapter 9

    Transport

    The JR Tadami Line connecting Fukushima and Niigata Prefectures is a local line known for its superb views of the Tadami River and the surrounding steep mountains. The region boasts its beautiful autumn leaves and snowy scenery. According to statistics from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the number of passengers traveling on JR railways in fiscal 2018 was 9,556 million.

    ©kenkou hoshi/©JNTO

  • TRANSPORT

    97

    1. Domestic Transport

    Various modes of domestic transport are used in Japan; almost all passenger transport is by railway, while nearly all freight transport is by motor vehicle and cargo ship.

    (1) Domestic Passenger Transport

    No major changes have been observed in recent years in the volume of domestic passenger transport. Under these circumstances, a shift from private automobiles to public transportation should be promoted as a measure against global warming, along with promotion of the development and distribution of environment-friendly vehicles and measures for traffic flow improvement. Therefore, in addition to the promotion of

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600

    FY 2018

    FY 2008

    Billion passenger-km

    Passengers

    Figure 9.1 Composition of Domestic Transport

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600

    FY 2018

    FY 2008

    Billion ton-km

    Freight

    1) The data for passenger ships is that for FY2016. Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

    ▼ Motor vehicles

    Railways 70.3

    Airlines

    Motor vehicles 60.8% Cargo ships 34.9

    72.3 15.6

    50.9 43.7 5.2

    4.0

    0.3

    14.4%

    11.5

    14.6

    Railways

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

    FY 2018

    FY 2008

    Billion passenger-km

    Passengers

    Figure 9.1 Composition of Domestic Transport

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

    FY 2018

    FY 2008

    Billion ton-km

    Freight

    1) Including overweight baggage and postal mail. Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

    ▼ Motor vehicles

    Railways 70.6%

    Airlines

    Motor vehicles 62.0% Cargo ships 33.8

    72.2 15.7

    51.3 43.7 4.7

    4.0

    0.2 1)

    14.1

    11.5

    14.6

    Railways

    Passenger ships 0.6

    0.6

    Airlines 0.2 1)

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    computerization, such as adoption of IC cards (multiple-use IC [integrated circuit] cards) and increased convenience in public transportation through the improvement of transfers, workplace "eco-commuting" measures have been promoted.

    In fiscal 2018, the number of domestic transport passengers was 31.50 billion (up 0.8 percent from the previous fiscal year). The total volume of passenger transport was 611.25 billion passenger-kilometers (up 1.1 percent).

    In fiscal 2018, the Japan Railways (JR) group reported 9.56 billion passengers (up 0.7 percent from the previous fiscal year) and 277.67 billion passenger-kilometers (up 0.9 percent). Railways other than JR reported 15.71 billion passengers (up 1.5 percent) and 163.94 billion passenger-kilometers (up 1.1 percent).

    To promote the use of buses, approaches to improve punctuality and speed using bus lanes and to make buses more convenient, such as by introducing a bus location system that provides locational information of buses as well as an IC card system that enables smooth bus rides, are being carried out. Commercial buses transported 4.65 billion passengers (up 0.1 percent from the previous fiscal year) and 64.11 billion passenger-kilometers (up 0.9 percent); both figures of passengers and passenger-kilometers increased in fiscal 2018.

    Table 9.1 Domestic Passenger Transport

    FY2017 FY2018 FY2017 FY2018 Total transport volume ............. 31,247,891 31,497,580 604,796 611,250 Railways ................................. 24,972,608 25,269,494 437,363 441,614 JR (Japan Railways) ............. 9,488,030 9,555,915 275,124 277,670 Other than JR ....................... 15,484,578 15,713,579 162,239 163,944 Motor vehicles ....................... 6,084,966 6,036,558 69,815 70,101 Buses (Commercial use) ...... 4,639,579 4,645,762 63,524 64,108 Taxis and limousine hires .... 1,445,386 1,390,797 6,290 5,993 Airlines .................................. 102,119 103,903 94,427 96,171 Passenger ships ...................... 88,198 87,625 3,191 3,364

    Item Passengers carried

    (thousands) Passenger kilometers

    (millions)

    Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

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    In recent years, the development of aviation networks has been underway, such as through enhancing the functions of metropolitan airports and promoting the entry of LCCs, in order to strengthen Japan's international competitiveness in both business and tourism. In promoting the entry of LCCs, there are expectations for creation of new demand, such as through the expansion of foreign tourists visiting Japan as well as of domestic tourism. Fiscal 2018 air transport records show that there were 103.90 million passengers (up 1.7 percent from the previous fiscal year), and passenger-kilometers amounted to 96.17 billion (up 1.8 percent).

    In fiscal 2018, passenger ships reported 87.63 million passengers (down 0.6 percent from the previous fiscal year) and 3.36 billion passenger-kilometers (up 5.4 percent).

    (2) Domestic Freight Transport

    In the area of domestic freight, a total of 4.73 billion metric tons (down 1.3 percent from the previous fiscal year) of freight was transported for a total of 409.9 billion ton-kilometers (down 1.1 percent) in fiscal 2018. As for transport tonnage volume in fiscal 2018, motor vehicle transport accounted for more than 90 percent of the total.

    Table 9.2 Domestic Freight Transport

    FY2017 FY2018 FY2017 FY2018 Total transport volume .......................... 4,787,542 4,727,467 414,492 409,902 Railways .............................................. 45,170 42,321 21,663 19,369 Motor vehicles ..................................... 4,381,246 4,329,784 210,829 210,467 Commercial use ................................ 3,031,940 3,018,819 182,526 182,490 Non-commercial use ......................... 1,349,306 1,310,965 28,303 27,977 Cargo ships .......................................... 360,127 354,445 180,934 179,089 Airlines 1) ............................................. 999 917 1,066 977 1) Including overweight baggage and postal mail. Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.

    Item Freight tonnage

    (thousands) Ton kilometers

    (millions)

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    2. International Transport

    (1) International Passenger Transport

    The global economic downturn after September 2008, the spread of a new influenza in early 2009, and the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 reduced international air passenger transport on Japanese airlines. In 2012, this trend reversed to an increase, and in 2018, Japanese airlines transported 23.30 million passengers (up 5.2 percent from the previous year) on international flights, and registered 102.44 billion passenger-kilometers (up 5.0 percent). Both recorded their seventh consecutive year of increase.

    The number of Japanese overseas travelers in 2019 was 20.08 million (up 5.9 percent from the previous year). The number of foreign visitors to Japan in 2019 was 31.88 million, representing an increase of 2.2 percent from the previous year. The number of visitors was the highest ever since statistics came to be recorded in 1964.

    Figure 9.2 Japanese Overseas Travelers and Foreign Visitor Arrivals

    Source: Ministry of Justice; Japan National Tourism Organization.

    0 2 4 6 8

    10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

    Millions

    2010 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

    Japanese travelers (Males)

    Japanese travelers (Females) Foreign visitors

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    According to reports on arrivals by tourist offices in countries around the world, the U.S.A., the Republic of Korea and China had many Japanese visitors in 2018.

    Table 9.3 Japanese Overseas Travelers by Destination

    Number of arrivals

    Annual change (%)

    Number of arrivals

    Annual change (%)

    Number of arrivals

    Annual change (%)

    U.S.A. 1) 2) ............... 3,603,786 -5.0 3,595,607 -0.2 3,493,313 -2.8 Korea, Rep. of 3) ..... 2,297,893 25.0 2,311,447 0.6 2,948,527 27.6 China 3) .................... 2,587,440 3.6 2,680,033 3.6 2,689,662 0.4 Taiwan 4) ................. 1,895,702 16.5 1,898,854 0.2 1,969,151 3.7 Thailand 5) ............... 1,439,510 4.2 1,544,442 7.3 1,655,996 7.2 Hong Kong SAR 2) .. 692,529 9.4 813,207 17.4 852,192 4.8 Germany 6) ............... 545,013 -15.8 584,871 7.3 613,248 4.9 Spain 2) .................... 463,420 -23.7 444,518 -4.1 550,681 23.9

    2017 2018 Country or area of destination

    1) Including territories and dependencies (Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico and United States Virgin Islands, etc.). 2) Arrivals of non-resident tourists at national borders, by country of residence. 3) Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders, by nationality. 4) Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders, by country of residence. 5) Arrivals of