Chapter 7 APPENDICULAR SKELETON SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 AXIAL SKELETON 80 (See Figure 6.1) Clavicle...

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Transcript of Chapter 7 APPENDICULAR SKELETON SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 AXIAL SKELETON 80 (See Figure 6.1) Clavicle...

  • Lecture Presentation by

    Steven Bassett

    Southeast Community College

    Chapter 7

    The Skeletal

    System

    Appendicular Division

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Introduction

    • The appendicular skeleton includes:

    • Pectoral girdle

    • Shoulder bones

    • Upper limbs

    • Pelvic girdle

    • Hip bones

    • Lower limbs

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Figure 7.1 The Appendicular Skeleton

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Pectoral

    girdles

    Upper

    limbs

    4

    60

    2

    2

    2

    2

    2

    16

    10

    28

    2 2

    126

    Clavicle

    Scapula

    Humerus

    Radius

    Ulna Ulna

    Carpal

    bones

    Metacarpal

    bones

    Phalanges

    APPENDICULAR SKELETON

    206 SKELETAL SYSTEM

    AXIAL SKELETON 80

    (See Figure 6.1)

    Clavicle

    Scapula

    Humerus

    Radius

    Ulna

    Hip

    bone

    Femur Pelvic

    girdle

    Lower

    limbs 60

    2

    2

    2

    2

    14

    10

    28

    Hip bones

    Femur

    Patella

    Tibia

    Fibula

    Tarsal bones

    Metatarsal

    bones

    Phalanges

    Tibia

    Fibula

    Anterior view of the skeleton highlighting the appendicular components. The numbers in the boxes indicate the total number of bones of that type or category in the adult skeleton.

    Posterior view of the skeleton. a

    b

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • Pectoral girdle consists of:

    • Clavicle

    • Scapula

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • Upper limb consists of:

    • Humerus

    • Radius

    • Ulna

    • Carpals

    • Metacarpals

    • Pollex and other digits

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Figure 7.2 The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Clavicle

    Scapula

    Humerus

    Radius

    Ulna

    Carpal bones

    Metacarpal bones (I to V)

    Phalanges

    Right upper limb, anterior view

    X-ray of right pectoral girdle and upper limb, posterior view

    b a

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • The Clavicle

    • Connects the scapula to the manubrium of the

    sternum

    • It extends from the manubrium of the sternum,

    laterally to the acromion process of the scapula

    • It is an S-shaped bone

    • Structures

    • Sternal end

    • Acromial end

    • Conoid tubercle

    • Costal tuberosity

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Figure 7.4a Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Scapula

    Clavicle

    Acromioclavicular

    joint

    Sternoclavicular

    joint

    Manubrium

    of sternum

    Bones of the right pectoral girdle, superior view.

    a

  • Figure 7.4b Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Retraction

    Protraction

    b Alterations in the position of the right shoulder that occur during protraction (movement anteriorly) and retraction (movement posteriorly).

  • Figure 7.4c Mobility of the Pectoral Girdle

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Elevation

    Depression

    c Alterations in the position of the right shoulder that occur during

    elevation (superior movement) and depression (inferior movement).

    In each instance, note that the clavicle is responsible for limiting the range of motion (see Figure 8.5d,f ).

  • Figure 7.3a The Clavicle

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Acromial end

    Facet for articulation with acromion

    LATERAL MEDIAL

    Right clavicle, superior view

    Sternal end

    a

  • Figure 7.3b The Clavicle

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    LATERAL

    MEDIAL

    Acromial end Conoid

    tubercle

    Right clavicle, inferior view

    Costal tuberosity

    Sternal end

    Sternal facet

    b

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • The Scapula

    • Posterior structures

    • Spine

    • Supraspinous

    fossa

    • Infraspinous fossa

    • Acromion

    • Lateral border

    • Axillary border

    • Medial border

    • Vertebral border

    • Anterior structures

    • Coracoid process

    • Subscapular fossa

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Figure 7.5d The Scapula

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Acromion Coracoid process

    Superior angle

    Superior border

    Body

    Lateral angle

    Lateral border

    Inferior angle

    Medial border

    Subscapular fossa

    d Anterior view

  • Figure 7.5f The Scapula

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Body

    Posterior view

    Medial border

    Supraspinous fossa

    Acromion Superior border

    Coracoid process

    Lateral border

    Infraspinous fossa

    Spine

    Neck

    Inferior angle

    f

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • The Scapula

    • Medial / Lateral structures

    • Lateral border (Axillary border)

    • Medial border (Vertebral border)

    • Glenoid cavity (lateral)

    • Superior / Inferior structures

    • Superior angle

    • Inferior angle

    • Suprascapular notch (superior)

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Figure 7.5a The Scapula

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Acromion

    Coracoid process

    Suprascapular notch

    Superior angle

    Superior border

    Subscapular fossa

    Body

    Rim of glenoid

    cavity

    Lateral angle

    Lateral border (axillary border)

    Inferior angle

    Medial border (vertebral border)

    Costal (anterior) view a

  • Figure 7.5b The Scapula

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Spine

    Infraglenoid tubercle

    Acromion

    Lateral view

    Supraglenoid tubercle

    Coracoid process

    Glenoid cavity

    Lateral border

    Inferior angle

    b

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • The Humerus

    • Proximal structures

    • Head

    • Greater tubercle

    • Lesser tubercle

    • Anatomical neck

    • Intertubercular sulcus

    • Deltoid tuberosity

    • Distal structures

    • Capitulum

    • Trochlea

    • Lateral epicondyle

    • Medial epicondyle

    • Coronoid fossa

    • Olecranon fossa

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Figure 7.6a The Humerus

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Greater tubercle

    Lesser tubercle Head

    Radial groove

    Deltoid tuberosity

    Radial groove

    POSTERIOR

    ANTERIOR

    Intertubercular sulcus

    Shaft (body)

    Surgical neck

    Intertubercular sulcus

    Anatomical neck

    Greater tubercle

    Intertubercular sulcus Lesser

    tubercle

    Head

    Anatomical neck

    Intertubercular sulcus

    Deltoid tuberosity

    Coronoid fossa

    Radial fossa

    Lateral epicondyle Medial

    epicondyle

    Capitulum Trochlea

    Condyle

    Capitulum Trochlea

    Condyle

    Medial epicondyle

    Radial fossa

    Lateral epicondyle

    Anterior views a

  • Figure 7.6d The Humerus

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    Posterior views d

    Greater tubercle

    Deltoid tuberosity

    Radial groove

    for radial nerve

    Deltoid

    tuberosity

    ANTERIOR

    POSTERIOR

    Anatomical

    neck

    Head Greater

    tubercle

    Anatomical

    neck

    Head

    Surgical neck

    Olecranon fossa

    Lateral epicondyle

    Trochlea

    Medial

    epicondyle

    Lateral

    epicondyle

    Olecranon

    fossa

    Medial

    epicondyle

    Trochlea

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • The Radius and Ulna

    • Radius is lateral to the ulna

    • Proximal structures

    • Head

    • Radial tuberosity

    • Neck

    • Distal structures

    • Radial styloid

    process

    • Ulnar notch

    © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

    • The head of the radius pivots on the capitulum

    of the humerus

  • The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb

    • The Radius and Ulna

    • Ulna is medial to the radius

    • Prox