Chapter 5, Section 4
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Transcript of Chapter 5, Section 4
Chapter 5, Section 4The Spread of Greek Culture
Section IntroductionThis section describes the spread of Hellenistic culture in the wake of Alexanders empire and the achievements of many great philosophers, writers, and scientists.
Terms To Know
Epicureanism: belief that people should seek out pleasure to be happy
Stoicism: belief that people should follow reason and do their duty to find happiness
Terms To Know
astronomer: person who studies the stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies
Plane geometry: branch of math that shows how points, lines, angles, and surfaces relate to one another
solid geometry: branch of math that studies spheres and cylinders
People to Meet
Greek Culture SpreadsPhilosophers, poets, scientists, and writers moved to the new Greek cities in southwest Asia, particularly Alexandria, during the Hellenistic Era. (page 183)Hellenistic kings wanted to make their cities like those in Greece, so they hired Greek architects and sculptors. The writers of the Hellenistic Era produced a large body of literature. The Spread of Greek Culture
Greek Culture Spreads (cont.)Appolonius wrote the epic poem Argonautica, recounting the legend of Jason and his band of heroes. (page 183)Theocritus wrote short poems about beauty and nature. Athenians still created plays, but the plays of the Hellenistic Era were about love and relationships.The Spread of Greek Culture
Why were the cities of southwest Asia lands of opportunity for artisans, scientists, philosophers, and writers?The rulers of these cities wanted them to be like the cultural centers of Greece. To achieve that goal, the rulers needed the services of artisans, scientists, philosophers, and writers.The Spread of Greek Culture
PhilosophyEpicurus, the founder of Epicureanism, taught that happiness was the goal of life. (page 184)Stoicism was developed by a Phoenician named Zeno. The Spread of Greek CultureThis philosophy believes that happiness comes from reason, not emotions.
How does our definition of epicurean today differ from the Hellenistic Era definition?Today the word means love of physical pleasure. In the Hellenistic Era, the word meant pleasure from spending time with friends and not worrying.The Spread of Greek Culture
Greek Science and MathAstronomers study the stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies. (pages 185186)Aristarchus was an astronomer who claimed that the sun was at the center of the universe and that Earth revolved around the sun. Eratosthenes was an astronomer who believed that the earth was round and measured Earths circumference. The Spread of Greek Culture
Greek Science and Math (cont.)Euclid, one of the most famous Greek mathematicians, described plane geometry. Plane geometry is the study of points, lines, angles, and surfaces. Archimedes was the most famous scientist of the Hellenistic Era.The Spread of Greek Culture(pages 185186)
Greek Science and Math (cont.)He worked on solid geometrythe study of spheres and cylinders. He also determined the value of pi, a number used to measure the area of circles. Archimedes invented the catapult, among other weapons.The Spread of Greek Culture(pages 185186)
Chapter 5, Section 4 Greek Science and Math (pages 185186)MajorContributionsof HellenisticScientists
Earth circles the sunEarth is roundSolid geometryPlane geometrypilevercatapult
What did other astronomers believe about Aristarchus idea that the sun was at the center of the universe?Other scientists thought Aristarchus was wrong. They believed Earth was the center of the universe. They thought the sun revolved around Earth.The Spread of Greek Culture
The Spread of Greek CultureWhy did the city of Alexandria attract scholars?Alexandria had a large library and museum.
Describe the form of philosophy developed by Zeno.He developed Stoicism, which states happiness comes from following reason and duty is important.The Spread of Greek Culture
Compare and Contrast How were the comedies of the Hellenistic Era and those of Greeces Golden Age similar and different? Similar: made people laugh;Different: focused on love and relationships, not criticizing people in powerThe Spread of Greek Culture
What were the differences between Epicureanism and Stoicism?
Epicureans believed that happiness came from seeking out pleasure. Stoics believed that happiness came from following reason and doing your duty.
Review Who was the most famous scientist of the Hellenistic Era? What did he contribute?
Archimedes; he worked on solid geometry and figured out the value of pi.
Analyze How would knowledge of geometry be helpful to the Greeks? It helped them to construct buildings and bridges, determine distances, and design machines.The Spread of Greek Culture
Identify What did the Epicureans believe about happiness? They believed that happiness is the goal of life.The Spread of Greek Culture