CHAPTER 5: APPENDICULAR SKELETON Anatomy & Physiology

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Transcript of CHAPTER 5: APPENDICULAR SKELETON Anatomy & Physiology

Chapter 5: appendicular skeleton

Chapter 5: appendicular skeletonAnatomy & Physiology

Appendicular SkeletonComposed of 126 bonesLimbs (appendages)Pectoral girdlePelvic girdle

The Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleComposed of two bonesClaviclecollarboneScapulashoulder bladeThese bones allow the upper limb to be freely movable

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle

Bones of the Upper LimbsHumerusForms the armSingle bone

Bones of the Upper LimbsThe forearm has two bonesUlnaMedial bone in anatomical positionRadius Lateral bone in anatomical position(*think on thumb side and you use your thumb to turn the RADIo off)

Bones of the Upper LimbsThe handCarpalswrist *Think:SLTPTTCHMetacarpalspalmPhalangesfingers

Bones of the Pelvic GirdleFormed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bonesComposed of three pairs of fused bonesIliumIschiumPubis

The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvisIt protects several organsReproductive organsUrinary bladderPart of the large intestine

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle

The Pelvis: Right Coxal Bone

Gender Differences of the PelvisThe Female Pelvis:inlet is larger and more circularas a whole is shallower, and the bones are lighter and thinnerilia flare more laterallysacrum is shorter and less curvedischial spines are shorter and farther apart; thus the outlet is largerpubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic arch is greater

Gender Differences of the Pelvis

Bones of the Lower LimbsThe thigh has one boneFemur The heaviest, strongest bone in the body

Bones of the Lower LimbsThe lower leg has two bonesTibiaShinboneLarger and medially orientedFibulaThin and sticklikeNon-weightbearing bone

Bones of the Lower LimbsThe footTarsals Two largest tarsalsCalcaneus (heelbone)TalusMetatarsalssolePhalangestoes

Arches of the FootBones of the foot are arranged to form three strong archesTwo longitudinalOne transverse

Joints

Articulations of bonesFunctions:Hold bones togetherAllow for mobilityWays joints are classified:FunctionallyStructurally

Functional Classification of JointsSynarthrosesImmovable jointsi.e. skull suturesAmphiarthrosesSlightly moveable jointsi.e. joints between vertebraeDiarthrosesFreely moveable jointsi.e. glenohumeral joint

Structural Classification of JointsFibrous jointsGenerally immovableJoints united with fibrous tissue i.e. sutures in skullCartilaginous jointsImmovable or slightly moveablei.e. pubic symphysis or intervertebral jointsSynovial jointsFreely moveableJoints surrounded by a cavity filled with synovial fluidi.e. knee joint, hip jointSummary of Joint Classes

Synovial Joints

Characteristics of Synovial JointsArticular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bonesA fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfacesA joint cavity is filled with synovial fluidLigaments reinforce the joint

Structures Associated with the Synovial JointBursaeflattened fibrous sacsLined with synovial membranesFilled with synovial fluidNot actually part of the jointTendon sheathElongated bursa that wraps around a tendon

Types of Synovial Joints

Types of Synovial Joints

Inflammatory Conditions Associated with JointsBursitisinflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or frictionTendonitisinflammation of tendon sheathsArthritisinflammatory or degenerative diseases of jointsOver 100 different typesThe most widespread crippling disease in the United States

Clinical Forms of ArthritisOsteoarthritisMost common chronic arthritisProbably related to normal aging processesRheumatoid arthritisAn autoimmune diseasethe immune system attacks the jointsSymptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain jointsOften leads to deformities

Clinical Forms of ArthritisGouty arthritisInflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the bloodCan usually be controlled with diet

Skeletal Changes Throughout LifeAdolescenceEpiphyseal plates become ossified and long bone growth endsSize of cranium in relationship to body2 years oldskull is larger in proportion to the body compared to that of an adult8 or 9 years oldskull is near adult size and proportionBetween ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life

Skeletal Changes Throughout LifeOsteoporosisBone-thinning disease afflicting 50% of women over age 65 20% of men over age 70Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fractureVertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as dowagers hump)Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton