Chapter 2 global environment 2013

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  • 1. The Changing Global Environment The HumanEnvironmental Relationship Chapter/Module 2Remember, whenever you see the the external hyperlink or website.1icon, click on it to open

2. Learning Objectives Learn the basics of Earths environmental systems to prepare for later chapters Understand the following concepts, models, and terms: Anthropogenic Climograph2 Climatic factors Greenhouse effect Kppen climate system Climate Change Green Revolution 3. Global Climates and Humans Human settlement and food production are closely linked to local patterns of weather and climate People in different parts of the world adapt to weather and climate in different ways Climate links us together in our globalized economy Opportunities Hardships3 Challengesin growing food 4. Plate Tectonics Move in 2 directions 4Convergent Divergent 5. Global Tectonic Plates5It is on the margins of these plates that the most interactions happen, thus they are most geologically active as well. 6. Convection powers plate tectonics6 7. African Rift Valley 7Example of Divergent Plate Boundaries 8. Global Hazards8 9. Hazards 9Many of the worlds hazards are located near boundaries of tectonic plates: Earthquakes and tsunamis Eruptions Flooding Others are not: Hurricanes Tornadoes Either way, Humans are always vulnerable to their environments. 10. TAKE QUIZ 2.110 11. Weather v. Climate Weather Climate 11Daily Particular time Particular placeLong term average conditions of a place, based on at least 30 years worth of data. 12. ClimateFactors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.Insolation Latitude Land/water contrastcontinentality Altitude Pressure systems a.b.6.12Ocean currents Wind systemsLocal topography 13. Climograph: provides information on average high and low temperatures and precipitation for every month in a year Graph includes these components: Average high temperature (upper line) Average low temperature (lower line) Average precipitation (bars)Provides Average Annual Precipitation 14. Climate Factor 1: Insolation14Stands for incoming solar radiation: Energy from the sun heats the earths surface unevenly. 15. Climate Factor 2: LatitudeDistance from the earths equator. Poles have less insolation and equator has more insolation.15 16. Climate Factor 3: Contientality16Rule of contientality: The interiors of the continents have more climatic extremes and the coasts have milder climates. Land v water deals with insolation differently. 17. 17Here, two cities at the same latitude have different climates because San Diego is on the coast, and Dallas is on the interior of the continent it has warmer summers and cooler winters. 18. Climate Factor 4: Pressure systems18a. Ocean currents: redistribute energy and isolation 19. Climate Factor 4: Pressure systems19b. Global wind patterns. Wind moves from areas of high pressure to low pressure. 20. Topography Topo=surface variations Graphic delineation in detail usually on maps or charts of natural and man-made features of a place or region especially in a way to show their relative positions and elevations.20Local variations on the earth surface can impact the weather and climate at a smaller scale. 21. Climate Classifying climates is not a new idea. This is how the ancient Greeks understood the world.21 22. Kppen Climate Classification 22A B C D E HTropical, wet climates Dry climates, desert and steppe Mild midlatitudeMediterranean Continental Midlatitude climates Polar HighlandThere are also many subclassificationsthat further delineate climate types, ex. Cfa 23. 23 24. 24 25. 25B climate. Sahara Desert in Morocco. 26. 26A C climate. Gibraltar, a British outpost on the tip of Spain, and entrance to the Mediterranean. 27. Examples of a D climate in Alaska, USA.27 28. TAKE QUIZ 2.228 29. Global Climate change More that the Greenhouse effect 29Human activities connected with economic development and industrialization affect the worlds climate Anthropogenic (human-caused) pollution increases the natural greenhouse effect 30. The debate on Climate change Watch the three following videos on this topic:James Hansen 2012 Rachael Pike 2009 Is there consensus among the scientific community?Vicki Arroyo 2012 30How long have scientists been studying climate change?What is the relationship between humans, hazards and daily life? Is there hope? What is stationarity? 31. Effects of Global Warming Computer models and scientists are coming to agreement on effects Average global temperatures will increase 2 F to 4 F by 2030 The same amount of cooling caused the Ice AgeMajor shift in agricultural areas Wheat belt could become warmer and drier; lower grain yield Canada and Russia could become warmer Southern regions of the U.S. and Europe could become warmer and drier, requiring irrigation 31Rising sea levels as polar ice-caps melt, endangering lowlying islands around the world, and coastal areas elsewhere 32. Rio de Janiero Earth Summit (1992) Firstinternational agreement on global warming 167 countries agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a specific target date 32U.S., Japan, India, China failed to meet emissions reductions 33. Kyoto Protocol (Dec 1997) 38 industrialized countries agreed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases to below 1990 levels To take effect, countries emitting 55% of the worlds greenhouse gases must ratify it Ratification of Kyoto Protocol will be difficult 33Large developing countries (India, China) are not yet bound to reduce greenhouse gases, and would have an advantage 34. 34 35. Trends in Global Temperatures35 36. Historic record of climate change36 37. Human Impacts on Plants and Animals: The Globalization of Nature 37Earth is unique because of the rich diversity of plants and animals Vegetation is the green glue that binds together Earths life and atmosphere Vegetation is both a product of and an influence on climate, geology, and hydrology Humans play a big part in this interaction Domestication of plants, animals Changed natural pattern of vegetation on the land 38. Land degradation Human (anthropogenic) Keep track of these in each chapterNatural disasters + human influence and choice 38 39. GREEN REVOLUTION THE SUCCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHER YIELD, FASTGROWING VARIETIES OF RICE AND OTHER CEREALS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES International research program-1960s Focused on the food crisis. Increased production per unit area via: Miracle crops New irrigation systems Intensive use of fertilizers Salinization of irrigated areas 40. The Green Revolutions Second stage has evolved since 1970s New types of fast-growing wheat and rice specifically bred for tropical and subtropical climates With irrigation, fertilizers and pesticides, farmers can grow two or three crops each year instead of just one India doubled its food production between 1970 and 1992 Problems associated with Green Revolution 400% increase in use of fossil fuels makes Green Revolution agriculture more vulnerable to oil price fluctuations Environmental damage Social costs, especially associated with the higher cost of this approach 41. Problems and Projections Local and regional problems are usually responsible for food unavailability Political problems are usually more responsible for food shortages than are natural events Food distribution is highly politicizedGlobalization is causing a worldwide change in food preferences Poverty and civil unrest at local levels impede food distributionShifting from vegetarian to meat-based diet could have profound implicationsAfrica and South Asia are most threatened by food shortages 42. TAKE QUIZ 2.342