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Transcript of CHAPTER 2 : CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS ... Eukaryotic cell : Cell that has genetic material that...

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    1 | KMPk

    BIO SCORE

    CHAPTER 2 : CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS

    SUBTOPIC : 2.1 Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    LEARNING OUTCOMES: a) State the three principles of cell theory.

    b) Explain the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    c) Illustrate and compare the structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (plant

    and animal cells).

    .

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    a) State the

    three principles

    of cell theory.

    ▪ All living things are composed of cells (All organisms are composed of one or more cells).

    ▪ Cells are the structural and functional unit of life.

    ▪ All cells come from pre-existing cells by division.

    b) Explain the

    structures of

    prokaryotic

    and eukaryotic

    cells.

    ▪ Pro : before, early, primitive, first

    ▪ Karyon : nucleus

    ▪ Prokaryotic cell : Cell that has genetic material that is not enclosed by nuclear membrane.

    ▪ e.g. of prokaryotic cell: bacteria

    Explanation

    about structure

    of bacteria

    (Circular) DNA • Is found in a single and coiled chromosome.

    • Not associate with histone protein.

    • Not enclosed in a nucleus (lies freely in cytoplasm).

    • Located in a nucleoid region.

    Plasmid • Small, double-stranded circular DNA

    • Containing extra genes / provide genetic informations for certain activities of cell

    Shape • Spherical (cocci)

    • Rod-shaped (bacilli)

    • Spiral

    Glycocalyx /

    Capsule • Outside of / external to cell wall

    • Made up of polysaccharide and protein

    • Protect against immune system of host cell

    Cell membrane • Membrane and other structures that surround and protect the cytoplasm

    • Main components are phospholipid bilayer and embedded proteins

    • Control the flow of materials into and out of cell

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    2 | KMPk

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    Explanation

    about structure

    of bacteria

    Cell wall • Made up of peptidoglycan

    • Provide structural support and maintain shape of the bacterial cell

    Cytoplasm • Semifluid (water-based) solution

    • Composed of water and organic molecules

    • Enclosed by plasma membrane

    Fimbria (sin.);

    Fimbriae (pl.) • Fine, hair-like bristles that present in multiple

    numbers

    • Help bacterial cell in adhesion to host cell or other bacterial cell

    Pilus (sin.);

    Pili (pl.) • Bristle-like structures that present single or in pairs

    • Longer than fimbria

    • Help in adhesion to another bacterial cell during the transfer of DNA (sex / conjugation pilus)

    Flagellum (sin.);

    Flagella (pl.) • Long fibers / structures that protrude from the

    surface of the bacteria cell

    • Mainly for locomotion / movement / motility

    Ribosome • Tiny particle compose of RNA and protein

    • Site of protein synthesis

    Mesosome • Irregular fold in plasma membrane

    • Site of cellular respiration

    Structure of bacterial cell

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    3 | KMPk

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    Different shape of bacterial cell

    Structure of flagella, fimbriae and pilus

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    4 | KMPk

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    Eukaryotic cells

    ▪ Eu : true ▪ Karyon : nucleus ▪ Eukaryotic cell : Cell that has genetic material that is enclosed by nuclear

    membrane.

    ▪ E.g. of eukaryotic cell : animal cell, plant cell

    Explanation

    about structures

    of eukaryotic

    cells

    ▪ Have membrane-bounded nucleus ▪ Nuclear envelope / membrane enclose the nucleus (separating its contents

    from the cytoplasm)

    ▪ Genetic material is linear DNA that is associated with histone protein ▪ Has membrane-bounded organelles ▪ There are two classes of organelles :

    1) Endomembrane system : organelles that communicate with one another via small vesicles or membrane channels

    2) Energy related organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts

    DNA associate with histone protein

    Structure of an animal cell

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    5 | KMPk

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    Structure of a plant cell

    c) Illustrate and

    compare the

    structures of

    prokaryotic

    and eukaryotic

    cells (plant

    and animal

    cells).

    Illustration of

    prokaryotic cell

    (e.g. bacterial

    cell)

    Structure of a prokaryotic cell

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    6 | KMPk

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    Illustration of

    eukaryotic cells

    Structure of eukaryotic cells

    Comparison

    between

    prokaryotic and

    eukaryotic cells

    ***Refer to similarities and differences

    Similarities :

    - Both cells are surrounded by plasma membrane

    - Both cells have DNA as genetic material

    - Both cells have cytoplasm, ribosome, smooth and rough ER, mitochondria,

    nucleus, nucleolus

    Plant cell

    Animal cell

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    7 | KMPk

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    Comparison

    between

    prokaryotic and

    eukaryotic cells

    Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

    Features /

    characteristics

    Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells

    Cell division

    Binary fission with no

    spindle formation

    By mitosis or meiosis or

    both with spindle fiber

    formation

    Cell walls

    Composed of

    peptidoglycan

    Animal cell has no cell wall,

    plant cell has cellulose cell

    wall and cell wall of fungi

    composed of chitin

    Membrane-

    bounded

    organelles

    Absent in prokaryotic

    cells Present in eukaryotic cells

    Ribosome

    Has small size (70S)

    ribosome

    Has large size (80S)

    ribosome; Small size (70S)

    ribosome present in

    organelles

    Genetic

    materials

    Circular DNA lies freely

    in cytoplasm.

    DNA not associate with

    histone protein.

    Linear DNA located in

    double membrane-bounded

    nucleus.

    DNA associate with histone

    protein.

    Flagella

    Simple flagella lack of

    '9+2' microtubule

    arrangement

    Complex flagella with '9+2'

    microtubule arrangement

    Plasmid Present in some bacteria Absent in eukaryotic cell

    Cellular

    respiration

    Site of cellular respiration

    is mesosome

    Site of cellular respiration is

    mitochondrion

  • SDS SB015

    BIOLOGY STUDENTS COMPANION RESOURCES

    8 | KMPk

    BIO SCORE

    CHAPTER 2 : CELL STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS

    SUBTOPIC : 2.2 Structures and functions: Cell membrane and organelles

    LEARNING OUTCOMES:

    a) Show the detailed structures of typical plant and animal cells and state the organelles present.

    b) Explain the structures and functions of the following organelles : nucleus, rough endoplasmic

    reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi body, lysosome, ribosome, mitochondria,

    chloroplast and centriole.

    c) Show the structure of plasma membrane based on Fluid Mosaic Model.

    d) Explain the structure of the plasma membrane and the functions of each of its components.

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    a) Show the detailed

    structures of

    typical plant and

    animal cells and

    state the

    organelles

    present.

    Detailed structures

    of typical plant and

    animal cells

    Animal cells seen under light compound microscope

    Plant cells seen under light compound microscope

  • SDS SB015

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    9 | KMPk

    MAIN IDEAS/

    KEY POINT EXPLANATION NOTES

    Detailed structures

    of typical plant and

    animal cells

    Animal cells seen under electron microscope

    Plant cells seen under ele