Chapter 19 - Consumer Concerns about Foods and Water .Consumer Concerns about Foods and Water

download Chapter 19 - Consumer Concerns about Foods and Water .Consumer Concerns about Foods and Water

of 181

  • date post

    03-Aug-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    212
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Chapter 19 - Consumer Concerns about Foods and Water .Consumer Concerns about Foods and Water

  • Consumer Concerns about

    Foods and Water

  • ENVIRONMENTALL

    CONTAMINANTS

  • Environmental Contaminants

    Substance that does not normally occur in food

    Biggest contaminants:

    Heavy metals: accumulate in body (lead, mercury, selenium)

    Industry dumps mercury in water --> fish --> people

    Lead poisoning: lead paint; lead pipes --> H2O

  • Environmental Contaminants

    Halogenated compounds: organic --> can be

    metabolized, but resistant and build up

    PCB (Polychlorinated biphenyl) --> leaked into

    rice oil in Japan --> 22 deaths

    How big problem?

    Safety precautions

    Accident --> high risk of toxicity

    Adequate diet, optimal health, variety

  • Environmental Contaminants

    Harmfulness of Environmental

    Contaminants

  • Persistent Defined

    Existing for a long or longer than usual

    time or continuously: as continuing

    without change in function or structure

    or effective in the open

    for an appreciable time usually through

    slow volatilizing or degraded only slowly by

    the environment

    Merriam-Webster Dictionary

  • What Persistent Chemical Pollutants?

    Toxic to humans and animals

    Persist in the environment

    Do not break down

    Bioaccumulate in animals

    becoming part of the food

    chain

    Tend to be widespread

  • Persistent Environmental Contaminants

    Various names depending on agency

    U.S. EPA Persistent

    Bioaccumulative and Toxic (PBT)

    United Nations Persistent Organic

    Pollutant (POP)

  • Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Persistent Organic Pollutants

    (POPs) are chemical substances

    that persist in the environment,

    bioaccumulate through the food

    web, and pose a risk of causing

    adverse effects to human health and

    the environment.

    UN Environment Program

    http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/

  • Quote / History

    These (British Columbia, Canada &

    Washington, U.S.) killer (Orca) whales can

    now be considered among the most

    contaminated marine mammals in the

    world

    Dr. Peter Ross, Institute of Ocean Studies

  • From Advertisement for ORTHO Lindane 1953

    Check These ORTHO Lindane Advantages:

    High Safety Factor Authorities have approved

    Lindane for lice and mange control on dairy cattle.

    Shows no contamination in milk when properly

    applied. . Even used by dermatologists for human

    itch, lice and scabies. Not cumulative and practically

    odorless. Any taken in by a warm-blooded animal is

    eliminated.

    ORTHO Lindane 1953

  • DDT widely used 1950s and 1960s

    now banned

    PCBs low flammable oil - widely

    distributed in environment now

    banned

    Historical Events

  • Aldrin/Dieldrin

    Benzo(a)pyrene

    Cadmium

    Chlordane

    DDT, DDD, DDE

    Dicofol

    Dioxins (TCDD) &

    Furans

    Endrin

    Endosulfan

    Hexachlorobenzene

    Persistent Chemicals I

  • Persistent Chemicals II

    Heptachlor

    alkyl-lead

    Lindane

    Mercury

    Methoxychlor

    Mirex

    Octachlorostyrene

    Polychlorinated biophenyls

    (PCBs)

  • Persistent Chemicals III

    Pendimethalin

    Pentabromo diphenyl ether

    Pentachloronitrobenzene

    Polybrominated Hydrocarbons

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    (PAHs)

    Tin (organotins)

    Toxaphene

    Trifluralin

    1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene

  • Chemical Toxicity I

    Aldrin/Dieldrin

    Pesticide Organochlorine Bioaccumulates

    Used to control mosquitoes and termites

    Importation and manufacture prohibited in the

    U.S. in 1987.

    Chlordane

    Pesticide Organochlorine Bioaccumulates

    Used to control mosquitoes and termites

  • Chemical Toxicity II

    DDT, DDD, DDE

    Pesticide Organochlorine Bioaccumulates

    Used to control mosquitoes Importation and

    manufacture prohibited in the U.S. in 1972.

    Affects wildlife found in breast milk and fat

    Dioxins (TCDD) & Furans

    By product of combustion Bioaccumulates

    municipal and medical waste incinerators

    human carcinogen

  • Chemical Toxicity III

    Lead

    Metal Widely distributed in environment when

    used as a gasoline additive and in paint. Now

    banned from use in gasoline and paint. Potent

    child neurotoxicant

    Mercury

    Metal Persistent Bioaccumulates

    Contaminates many species of fish. Widely used

    in industrial processes. Cause developmental

    neurotoxicity children most susceptible

  • Chemical Toxicity IV

    Mirex

    Pesticide Organochlorine Bioaccumulates

    Extensively used in U.S. from 1962-1978 to

    control fire ants. All use canceled in U.S. in 1978

    Pentabromo diphenyl ether (PBDEs)

    Widely used as flame retardant in fabric and

    plastics highly persistent recently found in

    womens breast milk

  • Chemical Toxicity V

    Polychlorinated biophenyls (PCBs)

    Heat and fire resistant extensively used from

    1929 and 1977 in electrical transformers all

    manufacture banned extensively regulated

    very widespread global contaminate

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Combustion by products class of 100

    chemicals combustion by products from oil to

    tobacco. Some of the first known carcinogens.

  • Chemical Toxicity VI Tin (organotins)

    Organotins are used in a number of consumer

    products including paint as a pesticide.

    Bioaccumulates and persistent, effects nervous

    system

    Toxaphene

    Pesticide Organochlorine Bioaccumulates

    Extensively used on U.S. cotton crops from 1947

    to 1980. Manufacture and use prohibited in the

    U.S.

  • Integrated Pest Management

    "Integrated Pest Management

    (IPM) is a sustainable approach

    to managing pests by combining

    biological, cultural, physical and

    chemical tools in a way that

    minimizes economic, health and

    environmental risks."

  • Environmental Contaminants

    Concerns of environmental contamination are many, but hazards are relatively small.

    It is important to be an informed consumer, keep alert to the possibility of contamination, and listen to public health announcements.

    Eating a variety of foods is an effective defensive strategy.

  • Environmental Contaminants

    Harmfulness of Environmental

    Contaminants

    Depends on its persistence

    Each level of the food chain has a greater

    concentration then the one below, known as

    bioaccumulation.

    Heavy metals and organic halogens can enter

    the food supply.

  • Methylmercury

    Can result in blindness, deafness, and lack of

    coordination, affects the intellect, and can cause

    death

    Fish can become contaminated with

    methylmercury.

    Infants born to pregnant women who consume

    methylmercury can be affected.

  • Environmental Contaminants

    Harmfulness of Environmental Contaminants

    PBB and PCB

    Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) was mixed with livestock

    feed in Michigan and caused nervous system problems and

    liver disorders in those who consumed the meat of the

    livestock.

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found in rice oil in

    Taiwan and resulted in fertility problems in men and women

    who had children with developmental issues.

  • Environmental Contaminants

    Guidelines for Consumers

    Hazards appear to be small.

    FDA regulates

    Health agencies provide advisories (mercury).

    The EPA regulates commercial fishing.

    States test and monitor their own lakes and

    rivers.

  • 42 Chemicals and 9 found to

    contaminate water in USA Acetochlor

    Alachlor ESA

    Aluminum

    Boron

    Bromobenzene

    Dacthal diacid degradate

    Dacthal monoacid degradate

    DDE

    Diazinon

    1,1-Dichloroethane

    2,4-Dichlorophenol

    1,3-Dichloropropane

    2,2-Dichloropropane

    1,1-Dichloropropene

    1,3-Dichloropropene

    2,4-Dinitrophenol

    2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Disulfoton

    Diuron

    EPTC

    Fonofos

    p-Isopropyltoluene

    Linuron

    Methylbromide

    Methyl-butyl ether (MTBE)

    2-Methylphenol

    Metolachlor

    Molinate

    Nitrobenzene

    Organotins

    Perchlorate

    Prometon

    RDX

    Terbacil

    Terbufos

    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Triazines

    2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

    Vanadium

    Adenoviruses

    Aeromonas hydrophila

    Caliciviruses

    Coxsackieviruses

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and toxins

    Echoviruses

    Helicobacter pylori

    Microsporidia

    Mycobacterium avium intercellulare

  • Natural Toxicants in Foods

    Many foods contain natural toxicants.

    It is the quantity consumed and the chemical structure of the contaminate, not the source, that makes it hazardous.

    Poisonous mushrooms

    Goitrogens in some vegetables

    Cyanogens tha