Chapter 18: Nationalism, Imperialism and Resistance Nationalism French Revolution, Napoleon &...

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 18: Nationalism, Imperialism and Resistance Nationalism French Revolution, Napoleon & Nationalism French government based on contract with the nation--a political group--not with a ruler French armies took their nationalism and Code Napoleon on their European conquests European nationalism a response to French dominance and French power
  • Slide 2
  • Nationalism The Periphery of Western Europe Nationalism strongest on edges of Europe Two faces of nationalism Positive: Empowers masses of nation Negative: Leads to conflicts such as World War I Nationalism in Latin America was top down Canadian nationalism prevails over regionalism U. S. nationalism tied to constitutional oath
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  • Nationalism Italy and Germany Neither unified before 1870 Composed of culturally similar but politically separate small states before 1870 Regional leaders in both countries sought unification to obtain national power Italy had common language and borders, Germany not as well situated
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  • Nationalism Italy and Germany [cont.] Giuseppe Mazzini provide vision for Italy Formed Young Italy in 1831 Camillo Cavour provided political power and alliances from Peidmont Garibaldi added Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Victor Emmanuel II leads unified Italy
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  • Nationalism Italy and Germany [cont.] Otto von Bismarck of Prussia unified Germany Strong cultural and economic basis for country Unifying folklore from work of Grimm brothers Economic ties from 1828 zollverein (customs union) Unification achieved by wars (Blood & Iron) Defeated Austria (1866) and France (1871) Southern German states voted to join
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  • Nationalism The Rise of Zionism The movement to create a Jewish state Success of European nationalism transform prayer for Israel into a movement for it Nationalism prompts persecution of outsiders Dreyfus Affair leads to Jewish fears in Europe Theodore Herzl the founder and visionary Not all Jews supported the hope of Israel
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  • The Quest for Empire Nationalism led to wars of unification and willingness to control affairs of others to benefit the nation British taxes on India took money out of Indian economy for British home treasury British tariffs harsh on Indian textiles during early industrialization Trade rivals for Britain by early 1800s
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  • The Quest for Empire Fierce economic competition from US, Germany and France Trade and the related desire to control territory led to creation of empires By 1914: 85% of earths surface controlled by Europe or nations of European ancestry Economics of nominally independent countries under European control
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  • The Quest for Empire Western European power based on dual revolutions of political & industrial change Success led to belief in superiority over those parts of the world that had not achieved gains of the dual revolutions Attitude often carried racial overtones to reinforce belief of superiority
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  • The Quest for Empire The Ottoman Empire, 1829-76 Was close to Europe and growing weaker as demonstrated by Crimean War (1854-6) Social organization on the millet system People organized by religious group under religious leader to enforce religious laws and collect taxes in contrast to European practice of unified people After Crimean defeat, the Ottomans pass Humayun edict of 1856 with equality under the law
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  • The Quest for Empire Southeast Asia & Indonesia, 1795-1880 Earlier colonial competition continues Britain claims Malaya & Burma France conquers Indochina by 1893 Dutch take Indonesia and institute Kulturstelsel, an exploitive agricultural system that made peasants devote 1/5 of land to cash rather than personal food crops
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  • The Quest for Empire India, 1858-1914 British defeat French for control of India, 1763 British East India Company administers the colony Increased tax collection & manipulated tariffs Indian economy structured for British benefit 1857 mutiny ends East India Company control Independence movement had to find balance of positive and negative aspects of British rule
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  • The Quest for Empire China, 1800-1914 Manchus colonized extensively & felt invulnerable in face of the West Internal problems from 1800 Population growth but no government response Did possess production for export Opium supplied by West to pay for goods
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  • The Quest for Empire China, 1800-1914 [cont.] The Opium Wars 1839-42 war gains extraterritoriality for Britain Refusal to grant diplomatic recognition leads to second war, 1856-60 Taiping Rebellion (began 1850) one measure of Chinese disorganization Weakness confirmed when Japan defeats China in 1894-5 war over Korea
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  • The Quest for Empire China, 1800-1914 [cont.] The Boxer Rebellion, 1898-1900 Boxers were nationalists seeking to drive Europeans out of China Western victory results in more concessions from China to the West Promoters of modernization in China opposed by Empress Cixi who served as regent to emperor Sun Yat-sen leads nationalist revolt to end Manchu dynasty in 1911
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  • Africa, 1652-1912 South Africa, 1652-1910 Dutch settlement in 1652 British gain control from Napoleonic Wars Abolish slavery, 1834, but claim best land Restrict vote but pass Masters and Servants Act Dutch Boer Trek to avoid British customs Zulu War to resist British control South African importance less after Suez opens
  • Slide 17
  • Africa, 1652-1912 Egypt, 1798-1882 Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) controls Egypt after French leave and Ottomans are ineffective Expands Egyptian power to Sudan and Arabia Ali a moderate on religion but faces Wahabism Son Ismail agrees with French to build Suez Canal Modernization policy had mixed results Egyptian power underscores Ottoman weakness
  • Slide 18
  • Africa, 1652-1912 Algeria, 1830-71 Part of weakening Ottoman empire French attack Algeria as center of piracy in 1830 and then claim control of country Meet extensive resistance from Muslim Brotherhood Numerous Europeans migrate to Algeria and take best farmland European minority (13%) controls majority Muslim population by 20th century
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  • Africa, 1652-1912 Islamic Religious Revival Revival in Sahel region (edge of Sahara) West African revivals Uthman dan Fodio in Hausaland al-Hajj Umar in Massina Samori Toure on Niger River East Africa Muhammad Ahmed, a mahdi in Sudan
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  • Africa, 1652-1912 Islamic Religious Revival [cont.]] Western Orientation in West Africa Sierra Leone a haven for freed slaves Liberia created by American Colonization Society New European export communities Cotton production on Niger River Europeans stay along coast while Africans maintain inland contacts and production River transport with short stretches of railroad Europeans seek greater control from the 1880s
  • Slide 21
  • Africa, 1652-1912 Europeans & the Scramble for Africa Knowledge of Africa provided by exploration Needed for commerce, missions, & science Most famous is the Stanley-Livingston episode Berlin Conference of 1884 prevents open competition among European powers African resistance to European claims met with force
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  • Africa, 1652-1912 Europeans & the Scramble for Africa [cont] Labor Issues: Coercion and Unionization 1913 Native Lands Act excludes Africans from 87% of South African land Need for miners in South African gold and diamond mines leads to low pay and the break up of families that cant afford to move to the mines Trade union membership restricted to white workers Race trumped free market capitalism and labor solidarity
  • Slide 23
  • G ender Relationships in Colonization Sexual liaisons with local colonial women ended with arrival of European women Create boundaries between Europeans & locals European families claim role as models of highest values of imperial country No female solidarity between local & Europeans Some adoption of European models in colony
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  • Anti-Colonial Revolts, 1857-1914 Benefits of empire (jobs, e.g.) accompanied by resentment at discrimination Colonials initially sought restoration of idealized, independent past Later movements sought freedom within setting of modern institutions Young Turks African National Congress (South Africa)
  • Slide 25
  • Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 The End of the Shogunate Japanese isolation ends with Commodore Perry Regional leaders decide to remove Shogun-- administered Japan in name of the emperor and stood in way of modernization Meiji Restoration began as regional revolt & ended with confiscation of Shoguns land and restoration of direct rule by the emperor assisted by daimyo
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  • Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 Policies of the Meiji Government Seek knowledge of world with two year tour Import advisors in industry & agricultural 130 foreigners in government by 1879 Restructure Government Daimyo give lands to emperor & become governors War with those who wont Create western style army using German model
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  • Japan: From Isolation to Equality, 1867-1914 Policies of the Meiji Government [cont.] Restructuring the Economy Revitalized agriculture yields landlord