Chapter 18

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Transcript of Chapter 18

Introduction Section 1: North Africa Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean Section 3: The Northeast Section 4: The Arabian Peninsula Section 5: Central Asia Summary

Geography is used to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future. The region of North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia has served as the crossroads for Asia, Africa, and Europe. As a result, it has been home to many ethnic groups and cultures.

North AfricaHow have the Sahara and access to water affected the people of North Africa?

North Africa nomad bedouin infrastructure domesticate hieroglyphics geometric boundary nationalism

principal medical

North AfricaA. Egypt B. Morocco C. Algeria D. Tunisia E. Casablanca F. Algiers G. Tunis H. Tripoli I. Libya J. Cairo K. Suez Canal

Population PatternsIndigenous ethnic groups, migrations, and the dramatic climate have shaped population patterns in North Africa.

Population Patterns (cont.) The people: Berbersindigenous to North Africa Arab

North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia: Population Density

Population Pattens (cont.) The Nile Delta region is one of the worlds most densely populated areas. Major urban population centers: Casablanca Algiers Tunis Tripoli Cairo

History and GovernmentThe Sahara, the Nile River Valley, and multiple invasions influenced different cultures throughout North Africas history. Early Peoples and Civilizations 6,000 B.C. Farming communities along the Nile River and Mediterranean Sea A.D.

6,000The Egyptian civilization developed in the Nile River Valley.

History and Government (cont.) Invasions and migrations: Until 750sIslamic invasions Late 1400sJewish exiles from Christian Spain 1500sOttoman Empire Early 1600sMuslim exiles from Christian Spain Early 1800sFrance invades The Alhambra Decree 1492 WWII U.S. and BritainNorth Africa: Invasions and Migrations

History and Government (cont.) Countries that have gained independence: Egypt Algeria Libya Tunisia Morocco

Which of the following has made Egypt a key regional power? A. The Nile River B. The Suez Canal C. Irrigation systems D. Oil A. B. C. D. A B C D

CultureThe Muslim religion and the Arabic language define much of the culture of North Africa. ReligionIslam LanguageArabic

Culture (cont.) Educationmost people attend school, but literacy rates range widely. Health carethis has improved, but doctor shortages mean limited care. The artspyramids; weaving, embroidery, and metalworking influenced by Islam

How many times a day are Muslims called to worship? A. 1 B. 3 C. 5 D. 7 A. B. C. D. A B C D

The Eastern MediterraneanHow do ancient civilizations and cultures continue to influence the eastern Mediterranean today?

The Eastern Mediterranean monotheism Prophet Hammas Mosque Makkah (Mecca) Zionism

identity security


The Eastern MediterraneanA. Israel B. Lebanon C. Palestine D. Syria E. Jordan F. Tel Aviv-Jaffa G. Beirut H. Jerusalem I. Makkah (Mecca)

Population PatternsMigrations, claims to ancestral homes, and boundary disputes have influenced population in the eastern Mediterranean. The people: Over 7 million people in this region are Israelis living in Israel. 80% of the Israelis are Jewish. Tensions between Arabs and Jews resulted in six wars.

Early civilizations

Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: The majority of people live along coastal plains and in the Euphrates River valley. This area has some of the highest population densities in Southwest Asia. This sub region is predominantly urbanmore than 80% of the people in Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon live in cities. Just over 50% in Syria and Palestine live in cities.

Ebla, Syria- Important commercial trade center around 3000 BC

Elba Tablets: 1800 cuneiform tablets

Damascus, Syria

Mesopotamian Structure shows a highly advanced culture some 5000 years ago.

History and GovernmentThe eastern Mediterranean is home to three of the worlds major religions that have shaped politics and culture there for centuries.

Judaism Christianity Islam

History and Government (cont.) Three major religions have deeply rooted histories in this sub region: Judaism Christianity IslamThe Old City of Jerusalem

History and Government (cont.) Independence: By the late 1800s, Western European powers controlled large areas in this sub region. These countries gained independence around the time of WWII.

History and Government (cont.) Conflict: Arab-Israeli conflictsin the 1948 and 1967 conflicts, victorious Israeli forces occupied Arab lands. The status of Palestinian refugees is an ongoing dispute.

Israel and the Palestinian Territories

Arab/Israeli Conflict

Arab View

CultureThe eastern Mediterraneans religions and languages have influenced its art and everyday life for centuries. ReligionIslam LanguageArabic

Culture (cont.) Educationmost young people attend school, but literacy rates vary widely. Health carethis has improved in recent decades. The artsexpression through arts and architecture; artists and writers found inspiration in religion.

Which language is spoken in Israel? A. Arabic B. English C. Hebrew D. French0%A

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D




The NortheastWhat religious traditions have shaped the history of the Northeast?

The Northeast culture hearth cuneiform qanats natural boundary embargo ziggurat

participate assumed

The NortheastA. Turkey B. Iran C. Iraq D. Tehran E. Mesopotamia F. Fertile Crescent G. Persian Empire

Population PatternsEthnic diversity and the Muslim religion have profoundly shaped the population of the Northeast sub region. The people: Turks Iranians Arabs KurdsEthnic Groups in the Northeast

Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: The most populous countries are Turkey and Iran. More than half of these people live in cities.

Population Patterns (cont.) Important cities: Istanbul Tehran Baghdad

The Iranians speak which language? A. Turkish B. Farsi C. Arabic D. Kurdish0%A

A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D




History and GovernmentAncient empires and thriving civilizations influenced the early history of the Northeast, which today is being shaped by the oil industry and relations with the outside world.

History and Government (cont.) Civilizations and empires: Mesopotamiathe Sumerian civilization lived in this area. The Phoenician civilization began along the eastern Mediterranean. The Persian Empire extended across the region. The Ottoman Empire was centered in presentday Turkey.

History and Government (cont.) The modern era: Iraq has experienced periods of turmoil since it gained independence in 1932. Turkey was established as a country in 1923. Iranians have experienced political and social upheavals over the years.

History and Government (cont.) The era of oil: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela formed the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in order to regulate oil prices.

Which civilization created a writing system, code of law, and year-round farming? A. Phoenician B. Sumerian C. Persian Empire D. Ottoman EmpireA


A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% DC



CultureReligion and language shape everyday life in the Northeast sub region. Languagemostly Arabic; Turkish in Turkey and Persian in Persia Religionmostly Shia Muslims in Iraq and Iran; Sunni Muslims in Turkey

Early Civilizations and Empires

Culture (cont.) Educationrequired through grade 6 in Iraq and grade 9 in Turkey; literacy rates are fairly high. Health carethis varies, but is struggling in most areas. The artsearly civilizations created sculptures, fine metalwork, and large buildings; literature is based on strong oral traditions, epics, and poetry.

Before the Islamic Revolution, how many Iranians could read and write? A. Less than 30% B. Less than 40% C. Less than 50% D. Less than 60%A


A. B. C. 0% D.

A B C 0% D




The Arabian PeninsulaWhat has affected the modern development of the Arabian Peninsula?

The Arabian Peninsula sheikhdom shariah emir hajj Ibadhism

labor dominant


The Arabian PeninsulaA. Kuwait B. Saudi Arabia C. Bahrain D. Oman E. Yemen F. United Arab Emirates G. Qatar

The Arabian PeninsulaWhich natural element has had a profound impact on this region? A. Rivers B. Mountains C. Desert areas D. RainforestsA


A. A B. B C. C D. D0%B




Population PatternsA shared religion, a common language, and rapid modernization have formed todays Arabian Peninsula. Most people in this region are Arabs.

Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: Bedouin still roam the large Arabian Desert, but many have migrated to cities. Population densities can be high in cities. The discovery of oil in the early 1900s led to increased wealth, modernization, and immigration in many Arab countries.

The Arabian Peninsula: Citizens and Foreign Nationals

What percentage of the people in the United Arab Emirates are citizens? A. 510% B. 1520% C. 2030% D. 3045%A


A. A B. B 0% 0% C. C D. DC



History and GovernmentConquering empires and unified governments have imposed cultures on the peoples of the Arabian Peninsula that remain influential to this day. Early cultures and conquests: One of the oldest centers of civilization in the area exis