Chapter 16 civil war (1)

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  • 1. The Civil War (1861-1865) Whos In and Whos Out? The Border States of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware stayed with the Union (some more by force than choice) Because of this, Tennessee, Arkansas, Virginia and North Carolina all joined the Confederacy Lincoln issued a call for troops in response to Fort Sumters surrender

2. The Civil War (1861-1865) Missouri and Kentucky Protected Union farmland to the North They helped control the MS and OH Rivers The Border States The Border States were Slave States but Lincoln needed them too much Maryland w/o it, DC would be surrounded by the CSA Delaware Protects the ports of Philadelphia 3. The Civil War (1861-1865) Heres a tough question 4. The Civil War (1861-1865) Who had the advantage in the War? Union or Confederacy? Why? 5. The Civil War (1861-1865) 6. Union Advantages The Union had larger population More troops means the Union can withstand more casualties and overcome poor military leadership The Union had more industry This means more weapons and ammunition Abraham Lincoln Like him or not, the Union couldnt have won without his leadership. 7. Confederate Advantages The CSA had a cause Much like our Revolution, the people were fighting to be free from an oppressive government Military Leadership The South had more trained officers and more trained troops who had just finished fighting against Mexican troops Plus, the CSA had home field advantage 8. #1 Blockade the Confederate Coastline This keeps the troop movement slow and keeps the South from exporting cotton The Civil War (1861-1865) Union war plan Anaconda Plan 9. = = 10. #2 Control the Mississippi River This cuts off the West from the rest of the CSA The Civil War (1861-1865) Union war plan 11. It was a simple one-part plan Fight a defensive war. Make it difficult enough for the Union to take them back, the Union would simply get tired of fighting and recognize the CSA as a new nation. The Civil War (1861-1865) Confederate war plan Besides, they didnt have the troop numbers to go on the offensive. 12. The Civil War (1861-1865) Who were these two sides? The Confederates were broken into two major Armies The Army of Tennessee This was the combination of the Armies of Kentucky, Mississippi and Tennessee was headed by a few different Generals Fought mostly in the Western Campaigns The Army of Northern Virginia Eventually was headed by Robert E. Lee Fought mostly in the Eastern Campaigns 13. The Civil War (1861-1865) Who were these two sides? TheUnion was broken into two major Armies as well The Army of the Tennessee Fought in the Western Theater Most notably headed by Generals Grant and Sherman The Army of the Potomac Lincolns main Army Fought mostly in the Eastern Campaigns Headed by a bunch of men - finally Grant 14. The Civil War (1861-1865) Early Years (1861-1862) Some Early Battles and their importance Date Who Won? Battle Significance July 1861 CSA First Bull Run or Manassas First major battle of Civil War Both sides disorganized Stonewall Jackson - Confederate hero CSA cant capitalize on Union retreat April 1862 Union Shiloh General Grant emerges as leader in West CSA wins 1st day, but reinforcements from Nashville help Union pull it out From here, the Union takes Corinth, MS and Memphis starts control of MS River April 1862 Union New Orleans David Farragut Union Naval hero Union capture of city gives them total control of MS River and keeps the CSA from using it to ship goods 15. The Civil War (1861-1865) Early Years (1861-1862) Some Early Battles and their importance Date Who Won? Battle Significance March 1862 CSA Peninsular Campaign McClellan wastes too much time training and building his troops Robert E. Lee takes command of CSA troops Army of Virginia Union fails to capture Richmond August 1862 CSA 2nd Bull Run or Manassas Stonewall Jackson / Lee vs John Pope Richmond safe for now CSA pushes to 20 miles from DC Sept. 1862 Union Antietam (Maryland) Lee goes on the offensive to try to get aid from England or France with a win McClellan actually found Lees plans, but was too cautious to act on them Union wins (barely), but McClellan replaced 16. Death Tolls Top5 Battles in Terms of Casualties Date DeathToll Battle/ Total Sept. 17 1862 12,410 U 13,724 C Antietam 26,134 May 8-19 1864 18,399 U 9,000 C Spotsylvania 27,399 May 1-4 1863 17,278 U 12,821 C Chancellorsville 30,099 Sept 19-20 1863 16,170 U 18,454 C Chickamauga 34,624 July 1-3 1863 23,049 U 28,063 C Gettysburg 51,112 17. Did You Know? Dog Tagscame from the Civil War Because the death toll was so high, soldiers printed their names and addresses on handkerchiefs or paper, which they pinned to their clothing before going into battle. 18. Civil War Firsts that you may not have known! These things occurred for the first time during our Civil War Machine gun SteelShips Submarine Snorkel breathingdevice Anti-aircraft fire Cigarette Tax Commissioned Army Chaplains Department of Justice (CSA) Electronicallyexploded bombs Flame Throwers Medal of Honor Naval Torpedoes BlackUS Army Officer (Major M.R. Delaney) Battle Photography Repeating Rifles Taps Income Tax US Secret Service Anesthesia for surgery NO, YOU DIDNT KNOW THEM ALL!!!! According to The Civil War: Strange and Fascinating Facts by Burke Davis 19. Lincoln and his commanders Irvin McDowell Too Inexperienced George McClellan TOO SLOW Ambrose Burnside Guess what we got from him? Joe Hooker Not your most upstanding figure 20. Lincoln and his commanders George Meade He was the last real Commander of the Army of the Potomac And Finally in 1864 Ulysses S. Grant Commander of Federal Troops 21. Abraham Lincoln The Great Emancipator Early Views on Slavery Remember that Lincoln and most Republicans were for a gradual end to slavery. His main concern was with the Border States who still owned slaves. As the war moved on, the North saw slavery as helping the Confederate cause. 22. Abraham Lincoln The Great Emancipator The Times They are a Changin There was growing pressure from Free Blacks and Abolitionists in the North. Lincoln also needs a way to keep England and France out of this war. He also wanted the President to make a stand on slavery, not the Congress. 23. Abraham Lincoln The Great Emancipator The Emancipation Proclamation After victory at Antietam, Lincoln announced his intention to free the slaves of the South. On January 1, 1863 he issued the Emancipation Proclamation, stating: . . . all persons held as slaves within any state . . . in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free. 24. Emancipation Proclamation What did it do? DID IT FREE THE SLAVES IN THE UNION? NO! The Border States kept their slaves because they werent in rebellion. DID IT FREE THE SLAVES IN THE SOUTH? NOT REALLY Remember, the CSA isnt listening to Lincoln because they are in rebellion DUH 25. Emancipation Proclamation What did it do? DID IT GIVE BLACKS AND SLAVES HOPE? YES, any slave who made it to Union controlled territory was set free and over 100,000 did just that. Furthermore, there were about 200,000 African Americans who served in the Union Armies and Navies. 26. You may have seen this movie which is about the 54th Massachusetts A regiment that was All- Black (except the commanding officers) Many of them were killed leading a failed Union raid of Fort Wagner outside of Charleston, SC in 1863. 27. Emancipation Proclamation What did it do? Slaves wouldnt get freedom until much later In the 13th Amendment, slavery was ended, but that was in 1865. And yet, this may be Lincolns most brilliant maneuver in the Civil War? YOU BET! England and France couldnt sell support of the CSA to their own people who were also against slavery. 28. Without freeing asingle slave, Abraham Lincoln hadofficially changed the Civil War into being about ending slavery. 29. And they called him Slick! 30. The Civil War (1861-1865) Things are going good for the Confederates, or are they? Fredericksburg (December 1862) The Confederates are outnumbered, but easily defeat Ambrose Burnside. He resigns after the loss. Chancellorsville (May 1863) Now, Lee takes on Joseph Hooker. The CSA wins, but Stonewall Jackson is wounded by his own men and dies a week later. BIG LOSS These help Lee feel he should invade the North it may bring in Britain and France 31. The Civil War (1861-1865) The Blue Years (1863-1865) Battles that begin the end and their importance Date Who Won? Battle Significance July 1863 Union Gettysburg This was the heaviest loss in lives of the Civil War (over 51,000) Known for Picketts Charge a very costly military mistake With this loss, Lee would never be able to invade the North again BIG TURNING POINT IN THE WAR May July 1863 Union Vicksburg Grant lays siege on the town for a month Union victory gains control of the MS River Cuts off TX & AR The CSA Food Source Nov 1863 Union Chattanooga Braxton Bragg (CSA) loses the important rail center, but plans to starve the Union forces out 32. The Civil War (1861-1865) The Blue Years (1863-1865) Battles that begin the end and their importance Date Who Won? Battle Significance July Sept 1864 Union Atlanta Start point for Shermans March to the Sea (Savannah) introducing the idea of Total War Aug 1864 Union Mobile Bay David Farragut leads Union Navy into bay and finally gives Union total control of the Gulf of Mexico News of this victory helps Lincoln win the 1864 election 1864- 1865 Union Petersburg Grant attacks this important rail center near Richmond for months Eventually forces retreat of Lees troops April 9, 1865 Union Appomattox Court House Lee surrenders to Grant Other CSA armies will surrender soon