Chapter 13 The Respiratory System. Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is only possible with...

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Transcript of Chapter 13 The Respiratory System. Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is only possible with...

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Chapter 13 The Respiratory System Slide 2 Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is only possible with the help from Oxygen O 2. In order to function, our cells need oxygen (food digestion, heart beatect) When our cells use oxygen they produce carbon dioxide which is removed from the body by Slide 3 The primary function of the respiratory system Bring oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream and to remove the gaseous waste by-product carbon dioxide. Due to their close relationship, the cardiovascular system and respiratory system can be referred to as the cardiopulmonary system. Slide 4 Amazing Fact: Auto-Control of the Cardiopulmonary System The cardiovascular and respiratory, or pulmonary, systems function without any conscious effort on your part. You probably didnt realize it, but as you read the previous paragraph and these last two sentences, your heart beat approximately 70 times and pumped approximately 5 liters of blood around your body. During the same time, you breathed approximately 12 times, moving over 6,000 milliliters of air. Slide 5 Respiratory system consists of Two lungs (vital organs of the system) Upper and lower airways that conduct or move gas in and out of the system Terminal air sacs called alveoli surrounded by a network of capillaries that provide gas exchange. Slide 6 Also consists of A thoracic cage that houses, protects, and facilitates function for the system. Muscles of breathing that include the main muscle, the diaphragm, and accessory muscles. Slide 7 Slide 8 Thoracic Cage Slide 9 Gases The air we breathe is a mixture of gases: Nitrogen N 2 Most predominant but is an inert gas, which means it does not combine or interact in the body. Vitally important b/c it keeps the lungs open with its volume. Oxygen O 2 Carbon Dioxide Argon Slide 10 Slide 11 Ventilation versus Respiration Ventilation Ventilation is the bulk movement of air down to the terminal air sacs, or alveoli, of the lungs. Respiration The process of gas exchange, in which oxygen is added to the blood and carbon dioxide is removed. Movement of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood is called external respiration. Movement of oxygen from the blood to the cells is internal respiration. Slide 12 Slide 13 Gas exchange in plants Fortunately for the earths ecosystem, plant physiology of gas exchange is the exact opposite of humans. Plants take in CO 2 and use it for energy, releasing oxygen into the atmosphere as their waste gas. The largest source of oxygen released is in the Amazon rain forest, which is, unfortunately, being destroyed at a high rate every day. We truly need a green earth to survive, so thank the next plant you see. Slide 14 The Airways and Lungs We have a reserve of oxygen to last 46 minutes, after that we will die if we dont get more oxygen. The respiratory system is a series of branching tubes called bronchi. As the branches get smaller they are called bronchioles. Slide 15 The Airways and Lungs (contd) Bronchioles end in alveoli, the terminal end of the respiratory system. Each alveolus is surrounded by capillaries. The combination is called the alveolar-capillary membrane and provides an interface between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Slide 16 Upper Airway Functions The upper airways begin at the nostrils, or nares, and end at the vocal cords. Functions include: Heating or cooling air to body temperature Filtering Humidifying Sense of smell or olfaction Producing sounds or phonations Ventilation, or conducting gas to lower airways Slide 17 Slide 18 The Nose While some people breathe through their mouths, we are meant to breathe through our nose. The nose is a rigid structure comprised of cartilage and bone. The nasal cavity, behind the nose, is divided into 3 main regions: the vestibular, olfactory, and respiratory regions. Slide 19 Slide 20 Vestibular Region The vestibular region is located inside the nostrils and contains the coarse nasal hairs that act as the first line of defense for the respiratory system. These hairs, called vibrissae, are covered with sebum, a greasy substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of the nose. Sebum helps trap particles and keeps the hairs soft and pliable. Slide 21 Olfactory Region The olfactory region is located on the roof of the nasal cavity, allowing air to be held there so it can be sampled. Slide 22 Respiratory Region Air is warmed to body temperature and moistened in the respiratory region inside the nasal cavity, which is lined with mucous membranes and richly supplied with blood. There are 3 scroll-like bones, or turbinates, that split incoming air into 3 channels, providing more surface area. Slide 23 Respiratory Region (contd) The turbinates also serve to make incoming air current more turbulent, bringing more air in contact with the mucous membranes for warming and humidifying adding 650 to 1,000 mls of water each day to moisten the air to 80% humidity. Slide 24 Amazing Fact: Why Do We Breath Through Our Nose? The nose is responsible for 1/2 to 2/3 of the total airway resistance in breathing. Airway resistance represents the work that is required to move the gas down the tube. There would be less resistance and less work if the tube was larger. Therefore, mouth breathing predominates during stress, exercise, or nasal congestion because the oral cavity is larger and creates less resistance. Slide 25 Mucociliary Escalator Cells in the epithelial lining of the airways of the respiratory system are called pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells. This layer consists of a single layer of tall column- like cells that have nuclei at different heights, giving the appearance of two layers when there is only one. Each columnar cell has 200 to 250 cilia on its surface. Cilia are hair-like projections that beat at a fantastic rate. Slide 26 Mucus Goblet cells and submucosal glands are interspersed and produce about 100 mls of mucus per day. The mucus resides as two layers: A watery layer called the sol layer houses the cilia so they stay flexible The top layer is the gel layer that is more viscous and sticky, trapping small particles Slide 27 Cilia Function The cilia act as tiny oars resting in the watery sol layer. They beat 1,0001,500 times per minute and propel the gel layer and its trapped debris upward about 1 inch per minute to be expelled. Slide 28 Cilia Function (contd) In the nose, the debris will be propelled toward the nasal cavity, if located in the lungs, debris will be propelled toward the oral cavity to be coughed or swallowed. This is sometimes called the mucociliary escalator, which is quite descriptive of what it does. Smoking paralyzes this escalator. Slide 29 Slide 30 The Sinuses The skull contains air-filled cavities called sinuses that connect to the nasal cavity via small passageways. They are located around the nose and are sometimes referred to as paranasal sinuses. These cavities help prolong and intensify sound produced with our voice and helps to lighten the weight of the head. Slide 31 The Sinuses (contd) We are not born with sinuses. They develop as we do, accounting for the change in facial features as we age. Sinuses also help to warm and moisturize air. Slide 32 PARANASAL SINUSES Slide 33 The Pharynx The pharynx, or throat, is a hollow muscular structure starting behind the nasal cavity, that is lined with epithelial tissue. The pharynx can be divided into 3 sections: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Slide 34 THE NASOPHARYNX, OROPHARYNX, AND LARYNGOPHARYNX Slide 35 The Nasopharynx The nasopharynx is the uppermost section, beginning behind the nasal cavity. This section contains: Lymphatic tissue called the adenoids Passageways into the middle ear called the eustachian tubes Air from the nasal cavity passes through the nasopharynx. Slide 36 Oropharynx The oropharynx is the center section of the pharynx and is located behind the oral, or buccal, cavity. Both air, breathed in through the oral cavity or nasal cavity, and food and liquid, from the oral cavity, pass through the oropharynx. Slide 37 Tonsils Tonsils are part of the lymph system. The palatine tonsils are located in the oropharynx, as are the lingual tonsils located at the back of the tongue. During swallowing the uvula and soft palate move in a posterior and superior position to protect the nasal pharynx from the entry of food or liquid. This can be overcome by forceful laughing. Slide 38 Laryngopharynx The laryngopharynx is the lowermost portion of the pharynx. It connects to both the larynx, a part of the respiratory system, and the esophagus, part of the digestive system. Both food and air pass through the laryngopharynx. Slide 39 Larynx The larynx, commonly known as the voice box, is a semi-rigid structure composed of cartilage connected by muscles and ligaments that provide movement of the vocal cords to control our speech. The Adams Apple is the largest of the cartilages found in the larynx: the thyroid cartilage. The cricoid cartilage lies below it, providing structure and support in an exposed area of the airway to prevent collapse. Slide 40 Larynx: Glottis Food that is swallowed travels into the esophagus, while air travels into the larynx. The glottis is the opening that leads into the larynx, and eventually the lungs. Slide 41 Larynx: Glottis (contd) A leaf shaped fibro-cartilage, flaplike structure, called the epiglottis, closes when we swallow to prevent food from entering the lungs. This is called glottic or sphincter mechanism, and closes the glottis tightly, forcing food and fluid to enter the esophagus. When we breathe, air can enter the larynx or the esophagus, but prefers the larynx because of pressure differences. Slide 42 Upper and Lower Airway The vocal cords act as the dividing line between the upper and lower airways. The lower airway starts below the vocal cords. The upper airway ends at the vocal cords. Slide 43 Clinical Applic