Chapter 13 Emotion Phineas gage theories of emotion
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Chapter 13EmotionPhineas gage
theories of emotion
Theories of EmotionDoes your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?
EmotionWilliam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion.We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling.
James-Lange Theory of EmotionExperience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
James-Lange (cont.)Subjects report feeling more sad when viewing scenes of war, sickness, and starvation if their sad face muscles are activated.They also find comic strips funnier if their happy face muscles are activated.
Cannon-Bard Theory of EmotionThe physiological change and cognitive awareness must occur simultaneously.
They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen.
Cannon-BardTheory of EmotionEmotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger:physiological responses subjective experience of emotion
Two-Factor Theory of Emotionhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e2qdvELqskc
Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely that the other two theories.They happen at the same time butPeople who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli.Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.
Schachters Two Factor Theory of EmotionTo experience emotion one must:be physically aroused cognitively label the arousal
Schachters Two-FactorEpinephrine Study:
InjectionToldEmotionGroup 1EpinephrineWill increase arousalMildGroup 2EpinephrineWill have no effect / other side effectsStrong
Arousal and PerformancePerformance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasksPerformancelevelLow Arousal HighDifficult tasksEasy tasksYerkes-Dodson Law
Yerkes Dodson Law: What type of motivational level do you need?? TASK MOTIVATIONAL LEVEL easyhigh moderatemoderate difficultlow
Arousal TheoryWe are motivated to seek an optimum level of arousal.Yerkes-Dodson Law
Expressing EmotionSmiles can show different emotions:A) Mask angerB) Overly politeC) Soften criticismD) Reluctant compliance
Experienced Emotion - FearLearning FearObservation / ExperienceGenetic / Evolutionary Predispositions?Biology of FearAmygdala emotions of fearHippocampus memory of fear
Expressed EmotionPeople more speedily detect an angry face than a happy one (Ohman, 2001a)
Expressing EmotionHow good are you at detecting emotions?Culturally universal expressions
Experiencing Emotionhttp://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/categorizing-emotions.htmlThe Amygdala-a neural key to fear learning
Experiencing EmotionCatharsisemotional releasecatharsis hypothesis releasing aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urgesFeel-good, do-good phenomenonpeoples tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Experiencing EmotionDoes money buy happiness?
Experiencing EmotionAdaptation-Level Phenomenontendency to form judgements relative to a neutral level
Relative Deprivationperception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneselfIs Happines Relative (8 min)
Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion
Theories of Emotions Review
ReflectionReflectionWhat affects your emotions?
What theory do you think is most accurate regarding emotion? Why?
How are motivation and emotion connected?