Chapter 12 The Biology of Emotion and Stress. Defining Emotion Emotion - A feeling that differs from...

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Transcript of Chapter 12 The Biology of Emotion and Stress. Defining Emotion Emotion - A feeling that differs from...

  • Chapter 12The Biology of Emotion and Stress

  • Defining EmotionEmotion - A feeling that differs from a persons normal affective state; a biological function of the nervous system.Emotions have three central attributes:A change in physiological arousal, ranging from slight to intense.An affective response, which may be pleasant or unpleasant.The capacity to motivate a specific behavior

  • FBI: Universal Facial Expressions

  • FacialExpressions

  • Say Cheese

  • Experiencing an Emotion: James-Lange TheoryThe view that the physiological changes that occur in response to an event determine the experience of an emotion.Physiological changes occur before the emotional feelingWe interpret physiological changes to determine how we feel, or how we experience an emotion.The different visceral and somatic responses allow us to experience different emotions.

  • Experiencing an Emotion: Cannon-Bard TheoryThe view that an event activates the thalamus, which stimulates the cerebral cortex to produce the feeling component of the emotion and, at the same time, the rest of the body to produce the expression of the emotion.The emotional expression and experience take place simultaneously by way of thalamic stimulation.Visceral changes, somatic changes, and the emotional experience occur at the same time.

  • Experiencing an Emotion: Papez & MacLean -The Limbic System Emotional expression and experience are mediated by a system of interconnected forebrain structures known as the Papez circuitEmotional expression occurs through the hypothalamus.The cingulate gyrus - the neural area responsible for emotional experience.Three separate circuits in the limbic system; include the amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, septum, hypothalamus, and thalamus.

  • Experiencing an Emotion: Schachters Cognitive ModelThe view that if unable to identify the cause of physiological arousal, a person will attribute it to environmental conditions.It is possible to misattribute arousal to the environment when, in reality, something else is responsible.A stimulus causes arousal, and our emotional feeling depends on how we label the stimulus.

  • Primary and Secondary EmotionsAntonio DamasioPrimary emotions - Innate, built-in, hardwired emotions; processed by the limbic system, particularly the amygdala.Secondary emotions -The experience of an emotion, the feeling of it, and learning is involved; processed not only by the limbic system, but also the prefrontal areas and somatosensory cortices.

  • Robert Plutchik

  • Emotions and Aggressive BehaviorAggression - A behavior motivated by the intent to harm a living being or an inanimate object.Determining intent can be difficult.Many different behaviors can be considered aggressive and aggression can occur in a variety of situations. Therefore, there seem to be different types of aggression with different neurological bases.

  • Moyer identified eight types of aggression:

  • Irritable AggressionAn attack on almost anything without making attempts to escape.

    Most prevalent, and most studied, form of human aggression.Includes pain-elicited aggression - aggression triggered by a physically or psychologically painful injury.In its mild form, irritable aggression may involve an overt display of annoyance. In extreme cases, it may involve destructive, uncontrollable rage.

  • Irritable Aggression:Neural Influences Klver-Bucy syndrome - A disorder produced by bilateral temporal lobectomyIn research, aggression has been associated with:Intense temporal lobe activityDecreased activity in the prefrontal cortexAtrophy of the amygdalaAbnormal EEG activity has been associated with violence, particularly in the temporal lobes.

  • Irritable Aggression and DiseaseSome diseases have been associated with aggressive behavior:Brain tumors, particularly in the temporal lobesEpilepsyHuntingtonsViral encephalitisCharles Whitman

  • Hormonal Influences on Irritable AggressionTestosterone level is high in groups with heightened aggression.The elimination of testosterone reduces displays of aggression.Testosterone administration reinstates the antisocial behavior of castrated males.Lower progesterone may increase irritable aggression in women Evidence has shown that testosterone affects aggression:

  • Serotonin and Irritable AggressionResearch indicates that low serotonin levels are associated with male aggression in both humans and nonhuman primates.

  • Fear-Induced AggressionAn aggressive behavior that is a defensive reaction occurring only when the organism feels threatened and perceives escape to be impossible.Fear motivates attempts to escape and, if escape fails, aggression often arises. This aggressive behavior continues until the aversive event ends or the animal is no longer able to fight.

  • Fear-Induced Aggression: Neural Influences Brain abnormalities associated with fear-induced aggression include:Lesions of either the anterior third of the temporal lobe or the prefrontal cortex severely disrupts fear-induced aggression in rhesus monkeys. Destruction of the amygdala in rats made them fearless.Humans with bilateral damage to the amygdala have difficulty in recognizing fear from facial expressions. However, they can recognize emotional components of speech.

  • What was that bang?Smells like gunpowder. Oh look fireworks!StartledAcetylcholineCortisol

  • The Genetics of AggressionResearchers can breed mice that are either extremely aggressive or unaggressive.They have bred mice that lack the gene that codes for one type of MAO, resulting in the animals having elevated brain levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine.Such knock-out mice exhibit aggressive behavior similar to that seen in human males lacking the same form of MAO

  • The Genetics of AggressionConversely, mice lacking the serotonin transporter mechanism showed a reduction in aggressive behavior relative to normal mice.Nitric oxide (NO) has also been implicated in aggressive behavior in mice. Mice lacking a form of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase, necessary for the synthesis of NO, exhibit extremely aggressive behavior relative to wild-type mice.

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