Chapter 12 Statehood for Texas 1845-1851

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Transcript of Chapter 12 Statehood for Texas 1845-1851

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Chapter 12 Statehood for Texas 1845-1851 http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/states_texas.html Slide 2 The United States Expands Manifest Destiny http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/states.html Slide 3 Section 1 Texas: The 28 th State When Texas accepted the offer to become a state of the United States, the first task was to form the state government. In 1845, delegates from across Texas met to write a state constitution. Later that year, Texans elected their first state officers. Slide 4 Vocabulary Legislature: government body that has power to make or pass laws Executive Branch: part of government that carries out the laws (US: president, vice president; State: governor, lieutenant governor) Legislative Branch: part of government that makes the laws Judicial Branch: part of government that interprets and applies laws (judges, courts) Slide 5 Vocabulary, cont Governor: highest officer in state government (like the president) Lieutenant Governor: second highest officer in state government (like the vice president) Slide 6 Constitutional Convention of 1845 Texas was annexed by US in 1845 Texas had to write a constitution (used US Constitution and Constitutions of other states as examples) Delegates met in Austin on July 4, 1845 Thomas Jefferson Rusk was president of Constitutional Convention Finished writing Texas Constitution on August 28, 1845 Slide 7 Delegates Jose Antonio Navarro Only Texas born delegate Served in Texas Senate Helped write Republic of Texas Constitution Has a county named after him James Power Born in Ireland Helped write Republic of Texas Constitution Most of delegates were from southern states 5 delegates had signed Texas Declaration of Independence Hiram G. Runnels had helped write Mississippi Constitution Slide 8 Provisions of the Texas Constitution of 1845 Protected homesteads from being taken away to pay debts Did not allow ministers or priests to serve in legislature Did allow settlers from other states to continue to bring slaves with them to Texas Women still had right to own land Established 3 Branches of Government Slide 9 Executive: highest ranking officers in govt Governor Lieutenant Governor Legislative: makes the laws Senate House of Representatives Judicial: interprets the laws and applies laws in court system Slide 10 BRANCHES OF STATE GOVERNMENT Slide 11 Election of 1845 After Texas Constitution was passed, first election was held on December, 1845 Elected Officials: James Pickney Henderson1 st Governor Albert C. Horton1 st Lieutenant Governor Thomas J. Rusk and Sam Houston1 st Senators David Kaufman and Timothy Pillsbury1 st Members of Texas House of Representatives John Hemphillchief justice of Supreme Court of Texas Slide 12 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Pinckney_Henderson James Pickney Henderson http://www.lsjunction.com/people/rusk.htm Thomas J. Rusk http://www.tamu.edu/faculty/ccbn/dewitt/Navarro.htm Jose Antonio Navarro Slide 13 Section 2 The United States and Mexico at War Soon after Texas became a state, war broke out between Mexico and the United States. Both countries claimed Texas as part of their nation, and the United States wanted control of other territories under Mexican rule. Slide 14 Mexican and US Policy on Texas Mexico not happy that US annexed Texas Mexico still didnt recognize Treaties of Velasco Claimed that Santa Anna only signed treaty because his life was in danger During the 10 years that Texas was a Republic, Mexico continued to think of Texas as belonging to Mexico Mexican leaders thought the Texas Revolution had been planned by the US Mexico warned the US that if Texas was annexed, it would mean war Slide 15 Tensions Between Mexico and the US Border of Texas: Rio Grande US accepted that based on Treaties of Velasco Mexico didnt recognize Treaties of Velasco Mexico still claimed all of Texas Mexico said that border of Texas was the Nueces River (not Rio Grande) Slide 16 Tensions, cont Tensions between US and Mexico not only about who controlled Texas US believed in Manifest Destiny US was destined to claim all land to California and the Pacific Ocean Mexico didnt want to give up Texas and land in California area Slide 17 Tensions, cont When US annexed Texas (1845), Mexico threatened war US President (James K. Polk) sent John Slidell to Mexico to try to work things out US would pay for damages that US citizens said Mexico caused (Mexico not have to pay for the damages) In return, he asked Mexico to recognize Texas as part of US and to transfer land between Texas and California to US But, Mexican leaders refused to talk to Slidell Mexican leaders were offended that US thought Mexico would trade land for money Slide 18 Tensions, cont Some citizens of US (in New England) didnt want to expand westward They thought US was just trying to expand slavery These were the people who were against the annexation of Texas Slide 19 Fighting Breaks Out US President Polk sent General Zachary Taylor (aka Old Rough and Ready) to Neuces River with troops Mexican General Mariano Arista led Mexican troops to Rio Grande Shots were fired in April 24,1846 and War with Mexico declared on May 13, 1846 Slide 20 Texas Voices Page 273 Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced and that the two nations are at war In further vindication of our rights and defense of our territory, I invoke the prompt action of Congress to recognize the existence of war President James K. Polk message to Congress, May 11, 1846 Slide 21 The War with Mexico General Winfield Scott (Old Fuss and Feathers) took over General Taylors troops Made his way to Mexico City Invaded Mexico City in Sept, 1847war ended there Many lives lostUS lost 13,000 men War ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Slide 22 Slide 23 Texans in the War with Mexico About 5000 Texans fought in War with Mexico Texas Governor James P. Henderson fought Many still wanted to Remember the Alamo Many wanted to retaliate against those in Mier expedition Many of the Texans were Texas Rangers Very brave and daring; great fighting ability; very valued and respected fighters Mexican term for them was Texas Devils because they were fierce fighters Slide 24 Texans in the War with Mexico, cont Texas Rangers, cont Served as scouts for Generals Taylor and Scottknew Texas landscape and helped guide troops into Mexico Famous Rangers Ben McCulloch, Samuel H. Walker, John S. Ford Slide 25 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Ended War with Mexico Signed on February 2, 1848 Provisions Mexico agreed that Texas was now part of US Mexico surrendered land between Texas and Pacific OceanCalifornia This transfer of Land from Mexico to US=Cessation Included California, and future states of New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, & Colorado In return, US paid Mexico $15 million and paid claims made against Mexico by Texans Slide 26 The Gadsden Purchase 1853, US bought a long narrow strip of land along border of New Mexico and Texas Purpose: land for a railroadended up being the Southern Transcontinental RR James Gadsden from South Carolina convinced US to pay Santa Anna $10 million (33 cents/acre) for the land Became known as the Gadsden Purchase Slide 27 http://www.learner.org/interactives/historymap/states.html Slide 28 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_K._Polk James K. Polk http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/chron/civilwarnotes/slidell.html John Slidell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Gadsden James Gadsden http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/mariano-arista.htm Mexican General Mariano Arista Slide 29 http://www.visitingdc.com/president/zachary-taylor-picture.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winfield_Scott General Zachary TaylorGeneral Winfield Scott http://www.civilwarhome.com/scottbio.htm http://www.sonofthesouth.net/mexican- war/winfield-scott.htm http://www.sonofthesouth.net/mexican- war/zachary-taylor.htm http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zac harytaylor Slide 30 Section 3 A New Western Border After the war with Mexico, the Rio Grande was made the southern border of Texas. However, disagreement arose over Texas western border. This issue, along with others, was resolved by the Compromise of 1850. Slide 31 Texas-New Mexico Border Dispute Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo established Rio Grande as southern border of Texas But, there was a dispute over Texas western border Texans didnt think Rio Grande ended at El Paso but continued northward through New Mexico to source of riverSan Juan Mountains in Colorado If the border continued all the way up to Colorado, about of New Mexico would be in Texasincluding Santa Fe Slide 32 Slide 33 Texas-New Mexico Border Dispute, cont People in New Mexico didnt want to be Texans People there had ties with Mexico and most spoke Spanish Lots of people there were still mad that Mirabeau Lamar tried to control New Mexico when he was president of the Republic (Santa Fe Expedition) Slide 34 Texas Efforts to Gain Control of New Mexico Texas wanted to gain control of New Mexico Texas Governor Henderson sent people up to Santa Fe to force them to surrender to Texas Santa Fe leaders refused to become Texans Slide 35 Texas Efforts to Gain Control of New Mexico, cont By 1847, Texas had a new governor George Wood He vowed to continue to fight for control of New Mexico To strengthen claims to New Mexico, Texas created counties of Worth, Presidio, Santa Fe, and El Paso in disputed area Texas was only able to agree to get El Paso to agree to be in Texas But, by gaining El Paso, Texas secured land west of Pecos River for Texas Slide 36 Disagreements over Slavery and Territories Texas still a problem for the US Zachary Taylor became US president in 1848 He had to deal with issues with territories Taylor agreed to let California become a part of the US as a Free State Free State: state that didnt support slavery