Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

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Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Largest solid organ in the body Plays role in: Digestion Absorption Metabolism. Anatomy and Physiology. Liver Plays role in Blood clotting Manufacture of important chemicals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Chapter 12 Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas Diseases and Disorders

  • Copyright 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

  • Anatomy and PhysiologyLiverLargest solid organ in the bodyPlays role in:DigestionAbsorption Metabolism*

  • Anatomy and PhysiologyLiverPlays role inBlood clottingManufacture of important chemicalsStorage of nutrients*

  • Anatomy and PhysiologyGallbladder stores bile until neededPancreas produces and excretes most of the intestinal enzymes*

  • Common Signs and SymptomsLiver DiseaseJaundicePain is the most common symptom*

  • Diagnostic TestsLiver function tests measure bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphataseUltrasound, X-rays, CAT scanBiopsyBlood tests to measure pancreatic function*

  • Liver DiseasesHepatitisInflammation of the liverCauses include chemical actions of drugs, toxic substances, chronic alcoholism, group of virusesViral hepatitis is the most prevalent*

  • Liver DiseasesHepatitisSymptomsJaundiceMalaiseAnorexiaMyalgia*

  • Liver DiseasesHepatitisSymptomsFever Abdominal painDark-colored urine (hepatomegaly)Clay or light-colored stools*

  • Liver DiseasesHepatitisTreatmentRestGood nutritionPreventionGood hygieneSpecial care when handling needles and body fluids

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  • Liver DiseasesViral Hepatitis occurs in five types A, B, C, D, EHepatitis A: benign; spread by oral-fecal contactHepatitis B: formerly called serum hepatitis spread by blood, urine, feces, saliva, and semen*

  • Liver DiseasesHepatitis C: spread by blood or sexHepatitis D: delta virus requires presence of hepatitis B to replicateHepatitis E: spread through fecal-oral contact, commonly due to water contamination*

  • Liver DiseasesCirrhosisChronic, irreversible, degenerative Replacement of normal liver cells with nonfunctioning scar tissue called hobnail liver*

  • Liver DiseasesCirrhosisMost common cause is chronic alcoholismSymptomsLoss of appetiteNauseaIndigestionWeakness and weight loss*

  • Liver DiseaseLiver CancerPrimary and benign tumors of liver are rareUsually discovered late or end stage Diagnosis confirmed by biopsyTreatment may involve surgery, radiation, chemotherapy*

  • Gallbladder DiseasesCholecystitisInflammation of gallbladder usually caused by obstruction of bile due to gallstoneDiagnosis is made by ultrasound, cholecystogram*

  • Gallbladder DiseasesCholecystitisSymptomsMild to severe RUQ painNausea and vomiting after eatingTreatment surgical excision*

  • Gallbladder DiseasesCholelithiasisGallstones in gallbladder or bile ductsSymptomsNauseaVomitingRUQ pain following meals with fat*

  • Gallbladder DiseasesCholelithiasisRisk factors include excessive weight, increasing age, female*

  • Gallbladder DiseasesCholelithiasis5 Fs of cholelithiasisFemaleFair complexionFatFertileForty or older*

  • Pancreas DiseasesPancreatitis - Inflammation of pancreasSymptoms Severe abdominal pain radiating to backNauseaVomitingDiaphoresisTachycardia*

  • Pancreas DiseasesPancreatitisSymptoms of chronic pancreatitis are similar to acuteDiagnosis is based on high blood amylaseTreatment and prognosis depends on cause*

  • Pancreas DiseasesPancreas CancerUsually adenocarcinoma occurring in head of pancreasSymptoms:Abdominal painBack painNauseaVomiting*

  • Pancreas DiseasesPancreas CancerSymptomsLoss of appetiteWeaknessJaundiceFatigue*

  • Pancreas DiseasesPancreas CancerDiagnosis confirmed by biopsyTreatmentSurgical resectionRadiation and chemotherapy*

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