Chapter 12: Emotion. Chapter Outline 1. What is emotion? 2. Theories of emotion 3. Emotion: How we...

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Transcript of Chapter 12: Emotion. Chapter Outline 1. What is emotion? 2. Theories of emotion 3. Emotion: How we...

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  • Chapter 12: Emotion
  • Slide 2
  • Chapter Outline 1. What is emotion? 2. Theories of emotion 3. Emotion: How we develop 4. Emotion: What happens in the brain? 5. What about positive emotions? 6. The range of emotional experience: How we differ 7. Disorders of emotion: When things go wrong John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • What Is Emotion? Emotion an intrapersonal state in response to an internal or external event Three components of emotion: 1. Physiological b odily arousal Heart rate, temperature, and breathing changes 2. Cognitive subjective appraisal and interpretation of ones feelings and environment 3. Behavioural physical expression of the emotion Verbal or non-verbal emotional expressions John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • What Is Emotion? John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Three Ways to Measure Emotions Behavioural displays of emotion Observe and rate facial expressions and verbal expressions of emotion Self-reports of emotion Widely used but has low validity. Why? Psychophysiological reactions o Face electromyography o Heart rate o Skin conductance o Startle reflex John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Functions of Emotions Cognitive functions Emotions help organize and retrieve memories Guide judgments and help us make decisions Behavioural functions Emotions alter behaviours Action tendencies emotions are associated with predictable patterns of behaviour Social functions Emotions both help and inhibit relationships John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory the physiological response we experience to an event is interpreted by us as an emotion Cannon-Bard Theory the experience of emotion and bodily arousal occur simultaneously Schachter and Singers Two-Factor Theory it is the way you interpret the physiological reaction that determines the emotion John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Theories of Emotion John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Testing the Two-Factor Theory John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Capilano Suspension Bridge, Arousal, and Physical Attraction John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Other Theories of Emotion Cognitive-mediational theory cognitive appraisal affects not only how we interpret physical arousal, but also the level of arousal Lazarus Cognitive appraisal is a cognitive mediator between environmental stimuli and our reaction to those stimuli Facial-feedback theory facial expressions both express emotions and intensify physiological response to emotions Facial efference sensory feedback from facial muscular activity John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Testing the Facial-Feedback Theory John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Duchenne Smile Which is the Duchenne smile? John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Survival Function of Emotions Evolutionary theory emotions are innate, passed through generations because they are necessary for survival Basic emotions innate and present regardless of culture John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Emotion: How We Develop Lewiss cognitive theory of emotional development Certain emotional states can occur only after associated cognitive abilities develop: Perceive and discriminate stimuli Recall and relate memories to events Be aware of self and others Izards differential emotions theory Emotions aid in development and emerge as a result of cognitive development Achieving emotional milestones encourages exploratory behaviour, thus leading to future milestones John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Development of Emotions AgeDevelopment of Primary Emotions Development of Secondary Emotions 0 8 monthsAnger, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear 18 24 monthsEnvy, empathy, and embarrassment 24 36 monthsPride, shame, and guilt John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Emotion: What Happens in the Brain? Early theories Limbic system brain structures thought to collectively create emotions Current research Emotional processes are controlled by multiple areas of the brain Amygdala Conditioning and recognizing fear Cerebral cortex Both positive and negative emotions Prefrontal cortex Involved in coordinating emotional responses, an emotional guide John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • The Brain and Emotion John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • The Brains Shortcut for Fear John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • What About Positive Emotions? Positive psychology study and enrichment of: Positive feelings happiness, optimism Positive traits wisdom, motivation Positive abilities s ocial skills Virtues altruism, tolerance Interesting findings: Happy people tend to stay happy, even with lifes ups and downs Unhappy people tend to find little long-term happiness in positive events John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Happiness Levels Around the World John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Happiness Genetic component Twin studies Past happiness is the best predictor of future happiness Happy people Optimistic, outgoing, curious, and tender-minded Longitudinal study highly optimistic people had a 55 %reduced risk of death and a 23% reduced risk of heart problems Have high self-esteem, are spiritual, are goal directed, have a sense of perseverance and of control over their lives John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • The Range of Emotional Experience Features of emotional responding Emotional clarity ability to accurately identify and distinguish ones emotions Attention to emotions tendency to take notice of, value, and focus on ones emotions Emotional intensity strength with which an individual typically experiences emotion Stable trait Moderate emotional intensity is the ideal level in most circumstances John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Regulation of Emotions Regulating emotions is necessary to function effectively Begins early in life Influenced by temperament, models, and stressors Develop adaptive or maladaptive styles of regulation Emotion dysregulation unhealthy attempt at emotion regulation Suppressing emotions is only beneficial in the short term John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Gender Differences in Emotion Display rules cultural expectations regarding the expression of emotions for men and women Many male-female differences in emotionality disappear when display rules are removed John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Cultural and Ethnic Differences in Emotion Facial expressions and the interpretation of facial expressions are generally consistent across cultures Language describing emotions differ in some cultures Differences are commonly associated with display rules John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Dialects and Facial Expressions of Emotion Does your face have an accent? John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Disorders of Emotion: When Things Go Wrong Emotional clarity Alexithymia unable to identify or describe emotions Attention to emotions Hypervigilant p ay too much attention to emotions, associated with anxiety Emotional intensity Antisocial personality disorder experience little or no anxiety or guilt as a result of their actions Regulation of emotions Borderline personality disorder severe inability to regulate intense emotions John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Anxiety Disorders Phobias Unreasonable fear of something specific Intense, persistent, and disruptive Arachnophobia (spider) most common Generalized anxiety disorder Excessive anxiety all the time (chronic worrying) John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Anxiety Disorders Panic disorder Experience repeated panic attacks periodic bouts of panic often occurring without provocation and involving physical symptoms that can feel like a heart attack Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) Compulsions rigid, repetitive behaviours performed to reduce anxiety Obsessions persistent thoughts, ideas, and impulses that are excessive, cause great distress, take up much time, and interfere with daily functions John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Mood Disorders Depression feeling overwhelmed by lifes challenges, resulting in a markedly sad state Mania euphoric state, frenzied energy Unipolar depression Just depression (lows) More common than bipolar Bipolar disorder Used to be called manic depression Periods of mania alternate with periods of depression John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Well-Known Canadians and Depression Jim Carrey Leonard Oscar Lopez Alanis Cohen Morisette John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
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  • Copyright Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Access Copyright (The Canadian Copyright Licensin