Chapter 11_The Appendicular Skeletal System

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TheAppendicular SkeletonBonesof the Pectoral Girdle and UpperExtremity1. Match the bone namesor markings in column B with the descriptionsin column A.

ColurnnAs; deltoidtuberosiry 1. raised areaon lateral surfaceof humerusto which deltoid muscle attaches 2. arm bone

Column B a. acromion b. capitulum

i: humerusd; clavicle o; radius a: acromlon D: scaDula d; clavicle ,

c. carpals p; scapula t; ulna 3. 4. bonesofthe shouldersirdle d. clavicle forearm bones e. coracoidprocess

5. scapular region to which the clavicleconnectsf. coronoidfossa to 6. shouldergirdle bonethat is unattached the axial skeleton g. deltoid tuberosity7. shoulder girdle bone that articulateswith and transmits forces

to the bony thoraxh; glenoid cavity e; coracoidprocess d; clavicle s; trochlea t; ulna b: caoitulum f: coronoid fossa

h. glenoidcavity i, humerus J. metacarpals k. olecranonfossa l . olecranonprocess m. phalanges n. radial tuberosity o. radius p. scapula

8 . depressionin the scapulathat articulateswith the humerus

9. processabove the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment 10. the "collarbone"l l . distal condyle of the humerusthat articulateswith the ulna

12. medial bone of forearm in anatomicalposition13. rounded knob on the humerus; adjoins the radius 14. anterior depression,superior to the trochlea, which receivespartof the ulna when the forearm is flexed

t: ulna c; carpals m; phalanRes i; metacarpals p; scapula

15. forearm bone involved in formation of the elbow jointq. sternum

16. wrist bonesr. styloid process

t7. finger boness. trochlea

18. headsof thesebonesform the knucklesa: sternum

t. ulna 19. bonesthat articulate with the clavicle


) How is the arm held clear of the widest dimension of the thoracic caee?(therefore arm) Iaterallyawayfrom the narrowest Theclavicleactsas a strut to hold theglenoidcavityof thescapula the dimension of therib cage.

3. What is the total number of phalangesin the hand? l4 4. What is the total number of carpalsin the wrist? iName the carpals (medial to lateral) in the proximal row. pisiform'triangular'Iunate'scaphoidIn the distal row. thev are (medial to lateral) hamare,capitate, trapezoid, trapezium

5. Using items from the list at the right, identify the anatomicallandmarks and regions of the scapula.


acromion coracoidprocess glenoid cavity inferior angle infraspinousfossa

b. c. d.



lateral border medial border spine superior angle superior border


h. i.


k. suprascapular notch Lfossa supraspinous



Match the terms in the key with the appropriateleader lines on the drawings of the humerus and the radius and ulna. Also decide whether the bones shown are right or left bonesand whether the view shown is an anterior or a posterior view. k Key: a. anatomical neck b. coronoid process c. distalradioulnarjoint d. greater tubercle e. head of humerus f. headofradius g. headof ulna h. lateral epicondyle i. medial epicondyle j. olecranonfossa

process k, olecranon l. proximal radioulnarjoint m. radial groove n. radial notch o. radial tuberosity p. styloid processofradius q. styloid processofulna r. surgicalneck s. trochlea t. trochlearnotch

Circle the correct term for each pair in parentheses:

ThehumerusisaGigfri}eft)bonein{ananterior@view.TheradiusandulnaareGiEfri}eft)bonesin@a posterior)view.

Bonesof the PelvicGirdleand LowerLimb7. Compare the pectoral and pelvic girdles by choosing appropriatedescriptive terms from the key. Key: a. b. c. flexibility most important massive lightweight a , -----!-, d. e. f. insecureaxial and limb attachments secureaxial and limb attachments weight-bearingmost important Pelvic: -----3-,I lterur

Pectoral: 8.

flfpmnlpl urinnru hlndder tmnll intectine rprhtm

What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle?

Review Sheet 11


9. Distinguish between the true pelvis and the false pelvis. Thetruepelvisis theregioninferior to thepelvic brim, whichis encircledby bone.The and falsepelvisis theareamedialto theflarin| iliac bones liessuperiorto thepelvic brim.

10. Use letters from the key to identify the bone markings on this illustration of an articulated pelvis. Make an educatedguess as to whether the illustration shows a male or female pelvis and provide two reasonsfor your decision. Key: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. This is u male (female/male) pelvis because; acetabulum ala of sacrum anterior superior iliac spine iliac crest iliac fossa ischial spine pelvic brim pubic crest pubic symphysis sacroiliacjoint sacrum

Acetabula are close together; pubic anglelarch is lessthan 90"; narrow sacrum, heart-shapedpelvic inlet

11. Deduce why the pelvic bones of a fourJegged animal such as the cat or pig are much less massive than those of the human. Thepelvicgirdle doesnot haveto carry theentireweightof thetrunkin thequadruped animal.

12. A person instinctively curls over his abdominal areain times of danger.Why?protection system. from theskeletal

Abdominal area orRansreceive the least

13. For what anatomical reasondo many women appearto be slightly knock-kneedl Thepelvisis broaderand theacetabulaand ilia are more laterally positioned. Thus, thefemur runs downward to the knee more obliquely than in the male

of supportinl the arches of the foot. 14. What doesfallen arches mean? A weakening, the tendonsand lig,aments



15. Matchthe bonenames rnarkings columnB with thedescriptions columnA. and in in ColumnAi: ilium

Column Band

k; ischium

a. acetabulum b. calcaneus c. femur d. fibulae. gluteal tuberosity f. greater and lesser trochanters greater sciatic notch iliac crest ilium ischial tuberosity ischium lateral malleolus lessersciatic notch Iinea aspera medial malleolus metatarsals obturator foramen patella pubic symphysis pubis sacroiliacjoint talus tarsals tibia tibial tuberosity

t; pubis k; ischium s; pubic symphysis h; iliac crest a; acetabulum

l . fuseto form thecoxalbone

2. "sit-down"boneof thecoxalbonejoin 3. point wherethecoxalbones anteriorly

4. superiormost marginof thecoxalbone 5. deepsocket thecoxalbonethatreceives headof the in thethighbone6. joint betweenaxial skeleton and pelvic girdle 7. longest, strongestbone in body 8. thin lateral leg bone 9. heavy medial leg bone x; tibia 10. bonesforming kneejoint

joint u; sacroiliac c; Iemur d: fibulax; tibia

c; femury; tibial tuberosity

11. point wherethepatellar ligament attaches12. kneecap 13. shinbone 14. medial ankle projection 15. lateral ankle projection 16. largest tarsal bone 17. ankle bones 18. bonesforming the instep of the foot 19. opening in hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami and un1j f; gregter lessertroclnnters 20. sites of muscle attachmenton

.r; patellax; tibia o: medial malleolus l: lateral malleolus

b: calcaneus w; tarsals p; metatarsals

q; obturatorforamcn e; glutealtubergsity


v: talusx; tibia v; talus

21. tarsalbonethat "sits" on the calcaneus

22. weight-bearing bone of the leg

23, tarsal bone that articulateswith the tibia

Review Sheet 11


16. Match the terms in the key with the appropriateleader lines on the drawings of the femur and the tibia and fibula. Also decide if thesebones are right or left bones and whether the view shown is an anterior or a posterior view. Key: a. distal tibiofibularjoint b. fovea capitis c. gluteal tuberosity d. greater trochanter e. headof femur f. head of fibula g. intercondylareminence h. intertrochantericcrest i. lateralcondyle j. lateralepicondyle

k. lateral malleolus l. lesserffochanter m. medial condyle n. medial epicondyle o. medial malleolus p. neck of femur

q. proximal tibiofibular joint r. tibial anterior borderS.

tibial tuberosity

Circle the correct term for eachpair in parentheses:

ThefemurisaGlgtr?Deft)bonein(ananterio.@view.Thetibiaandfibulaare(Etr}tert)bonesin@a posterior) view.

of Summary Skeleton17. Identify all indicated bones (or groups of bones) in the diagram of the articulated skeleton on page 73.