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Chapter 12: Organizational Culture

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    Chapter 12: Organizational

    Culture

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    Organizational Culture

    Organizational culture is the shared social

    knowledge within an organization regarding the

    rules, norms, and values that shape the attitudes

    and behaviors of its employees. Culture is social knowledge among members of the

    organization.

    Culture tells employees what the rules, norms, and

    values are within the organization. Organizational culture shapes and reinforces certain

    employee attitudes and behaviors by creating a

    system of control over employees.12-2

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    Culture Components

    Observable artifacts are the manifestations of an

    organizations culture that employees can easily

    see or talk about.

    Symbols can be found throughout an organization, from

    its corporate logo to the images it places on its Web site

    to the uniforms its employees wear.

    Physical structures are the organizations buildings

    and internal office designs.

    Language reflects the jargon, slang, and slogans used

    within the walls of an organization.

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    Culture Components, Contd

    Observable artifacts, continued Stories consist of anecdotes, accounts, legends, and

    myths that are passed down from cohort to cohortwithin an organization.

    Rituals are the daily or weekly planned routines thatoccur in an organization.

    Ceremonies are formal events, generally performedin front of an audience of organizational members.

    Espoused values are the beliefs, philosophies,and norms that a company explicitly states. Published documents, verbal statements made to

    employees by managers.

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    Culture Components, Contd

    Basic underlying assumptions are taken-for-granted beliefs and philosophies that are soingrained that employees simply act on them

    rather than questioning the validity of theirbehavior in a given situation. Represent the deepest and least observable part of a

    culture and may not be consciously apparent, even toorganizational veterans.

    Its hidden beliefs are those that are the most likely todictate employee behavior and affect employeeattitudes.

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    General Culture Types

    Fragmented culture is an organizational culture type inwhich employees are distant and disconnected from oneanother.

    Mercenary culture is an organizational culture type inwhich employees think alike but are not friendly to oneanother.

    Communal culture is an organizational culture type inwhich employees are friendly to one another, but

    everyone thinks differently and does his or her ownthing.

    Networked culture is an organizational culture type inwhich employees are friendly to one another and all thinkalike.

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    Specific Culture Types

    Customer service culture is a specific

    culture type focused on service quality.

    Shown to change employee attitudes andbehaviors toward customers.

    Figure 12-3

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    Specific Culture Types, Contd

    Diversity culture is a specific culture type

    focused on fostering or taking advantage of a

    diverse group of employees. Creativity culture is a specific culture type

    focused on fostering a creative atmosphere.

    Affects both the quantity and quality of creative ideas

    within an organization.

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    Culture Strength

    Culture strength exists when employees definitivelyagree about the way things are supposed to happenwithin the organization (high consensus) and when theirsubsequent behaviors are consistent with thoseexpectations (high intensity).

    Subcultures unite a smaller subset of the organizationsemployees. Created because there is a strong leader in one area of the

    company that engenders different norms and values

    Created because different divisions in a company actindependently and create their own cultures.

    Countercultures exist when a subcultures values donot match those of the organization.

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    Maintaining an Organizational

    Culture

    Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA)

    frameworkholds that potential employees will

    be attracted to organizations whose cultures

    match their own personality. Some potential job applicants wont apply due to a

    perceived lack of fit.

    Organizations will select candidates based on

    whether their personalities fit the culture, furtherweeding out potential misfits.

    Those people who still dont fit will either be unhappy

    or ineffective when working in the organization.

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    Maintaining an Organizational

    Culture, Contd

    Socialization is the primary process by whichemployees learn the social knowledge that enables themto understand and adapt to the organizations culture. It is a process that begins before an employee starts work and

    doesnt end until an employee leaves the organization. Realistic job preview(RJP) is the process of ensuring that a

    potential employee understands both the positive and negativeaspects of the potential job. One of the most inexpensive and effective ways of reducing early

    turnover among new employees.

    Mentoringis a process by which a junior-level employee(protg) develops a deep and long-lasting relationship with amore senior-level employee (mentor) within the organization. Can provide social knowledge, resources, and psychological

    support to the protg both at the beginning of employment and asthe protg continues his or her career with the company.

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    Changing an Organizational

    Culture

    Changes in leadership

    New leaders bring their own ideas and values,and leaders are expected to be a driving forcefor change.

    Mergers and Acquisitions

    Two companies with distinct cultures are

    merged to form a new culture.

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    How Important Is Organizational

    Culture?

    Personorganization fitis the degree to whicha persons personality and values match theculture of an organization.

    Employees judge fit by thinking about the values theyprioritize the most, then judging whether theorganization shares those values.

    When employees feel that their values andpersonality match those of the organization, theyexperience higher levels ofjob satisfaction and feelless stress about their day-to-day tasks.

    Employees also feel higher levels oftrusttoward theirmanagers.

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