Chap 2 cell structure and cell organisation

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Transcript of Chap 2 cell structure and cell organisation

Chapter 2 : Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

Chapter 2 : Cell Structure and Cell OrganisationArnieAdnan

Draw three typical cheek cells (x40) magnification

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Draw three typical cheek cells (x100) magnification

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Draw three typical onion cells (x40) magnification

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Draw three typical onion cells (x100) magnification

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Animal cell organelles

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Plant cell organelles

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Structure & Function of Cellular ComponentsStructureCharacteristicsFunctionCell wallComposes of ________, a tough and fibrous ___________._________ membrane.Gives __________ to plant cells.Protects the cell plant from _________ due to excessive intake of __________.

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StructureCharacteristicsFunctionCell membraneMade up of __________ and __________.A _____________ membrane.To separate the contents of the cell from the _______ __________.___________ the movement of ________ into and out of the cytoplasm.NucleusEnclosed by a ________ membrane.Consists __________ & spherical structure called a ____________.Controls the _________ of the cell.Carries __________ information.

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StructureCharacteristicsFunctionCytoplasmRegion between the _________ and ______ ____________.Consists of jelly-like __________.Medium for __________ processes in the cell.Provide substances obtained from the external environment to the ____________.MitochondrionA __________-shaped organelle.Involves in cell __________.Energy is stored in the form of ________.

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StructureCharacteristicsFunctionRough E.R.Has ________ attached to its surface.Transports _________ synthesised by the ___________.Smooth E.R.Does not have ________ attached to its surface.Site for _______ synthesis & __________ of poisons.E.R. = Endoplasmic reticulum

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StructureCharacteristicsFunctionRibosomesCompact ___________ organelles.Either attached to the _________ _________ or suspended freely in the __________.To synthesise __________.Golgi apparatusConsists of a stack of __________ _______________ sacs.Centre for __________, ________ & _________ of carbohydrates, _________ & glycoproteins.

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Structure & Function of Cellular ComponentsStructureCharacteristicsFunctionCell wallComposes of ________, a tough and fibrous ___________._________ membrane.Gives __________ to plant cells.Protects the cell plant from _________ due to excessive intake of __________.

cellulosecarbohydratesFullysupportburstingwaterArnieAdnan

StructureCharacteristicsFunctionCell membraneMade up of __________ and __________.A _____________ membrane.To separate the contents of the cell from the _______ __________.___________ the movement of ________ into and out of the cytoplasm.NucleusEnclosed by a ________ membrane.Consists __________ & spherical structure called a ____________.Controls the _________ of the cell.Carries __________ information.

proteinslipidssemi-permeableexternal environmentRegulatessubstancesbilayerchromosomesnucleolusactivitiesgeneticArnieAdnan

StructureCharacteristicsFunctionCytoplasmRegion between the _________ and ______ ____________.Consists of jelly-like __________.Medium for __________ processes in the cell.Provide substances obtained from the external environment to the ____________.MitochondrionA __________-shaped organelle.Involves in cell __________.Energy is stored in the form of ________.

nucleusplasmamembranemediumbiochemicalorganellescylindricalrespirationATPArnieAdnan

StructureCharacteristicsFunctionRough E.R.Has ________ attached to its surface.Transports _________ synthesised by the ___________.Smooth E.R.Does not have ________ attached to its surface.Site for _______ synthesis & __________ of poisons.E.R. = Endoplasmic reticulum

ribosomesproteinsribosomesribosomeslipiddetoxificationArnieAdnan

StructureCharacteristicsFunctionRibosomesCompact ___________ organelles.Either attached to the _________ _________ or suspended freely in the __________.To synthesise __________.Golgi apparatusConsists of a stack of __________ _______________ sacs.Centre for __________, ________ & _________ of carbohydrates, _________ & glycoproteins.

sphericalendoplasmic reticulumcytoplasmproteinsflattenedmembrane-boundprocessingpackagingtransportingproteinsArnieAdnan

A comparison between a plant cell an animal cell.

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The similarities in animal and plant cells

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The differences between animal cells and plant cells

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All cells have the same basic structure but the density of some of the organelles may differ according to the function of the cell.For example, a sperm cell has a lot of mitochondria to help it swim while the salivary glands have a lot of golgi apparatus to produce enzymes.

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Types of cellsFunctionOrganelle found abundantly in the cellSperm cellsTo ________ _______.M____________Muscle cellsTo enable __________.______________Meristematic cellsTo carry out __________ ________ _________.M_____________

Relationship between the Density of Certain Organelles with the Functions of Specific CellsArnieAdnan

Types of cellsFunctionOrganelle found abundantly in the cellMesophyll cellsTo carry out ___________.C___________Pancreatic cellsTo synthesise & ______ enzymes & __________.E________ _______,_______ a________

Relationship between the Density of Certain Organelles with the Functions of Specific CellsArnieAdnan

Types of cellsFunctionOrganelle found abundantly in the cellSperm cellsTo ________ _______.M____________Muscle cellsTo enable __________.______________Meristematic cellsTo carry out __________ ________ _________.M_____________

Relationship between the Density of Certain Organelles with the Functions of Specific Cellsfertilise ovumitochondrionmovementsMitochondrionmitotic cell divisionitochondrionArnieAdnan

Types of cellsFunctionOrganelle found abundantly in the cellMesophyll cellsTo carry out ___________.C___________Pancreatic cellsTo synthesise & ______ enzymes & __________.E________ _______,_______ ________

Relationship between the Density of Certain Organelles with the Functions of Specific Cellsphotosynthesishloroplastssecretehormonesndoplasmic reticulumGolgi apparatusArnieAdnan

Life ProcessesAmoeba sp.ParameciumHabitatStructureFeeding (nutrition)LocomotionRespirationOsmoregulationExcretionGrowthSensitivityReproduction

Living Processes of Unicellular OrganismsArnieAdnan

Life ProcessesAmoeba sp.ParameciumHabitatFound in fresh water, marine environment & soil water.Lives in slow-flowing fresh water, ponds, lakes or stagnant water containing decaying organic matter.StructureIrregular in shapeSingle cell surrounded by a plasma membraneMoves & feeds using pseudopodiaOuter surface is covered with cilia.Cilia are involved in feeding & locomotion.

Living Processes of Unicellular OrganismsArnieAdnan

Life ProcessesAmoeba sp.ParameciumFeeding (nutrition)Amoeba engulfs food by phagocytosis using pseudopodia.Two pseudopodia extend out & enclose the food particles.The food particles (packaged in vacuole) are digested by lysozimes.Beating of the cilia along the oral groove sweeps water & suspended foods into cytostome.Food vacuole is formed, foods are digested by hydrolytic enzyme.Digested foods then diffuse into the cytoplasm.Undigested food is digested via the anal pore.

Living Processes of Unicellular OrganismsArnieAdnan

Life ProcessesAmoeba sp.ParameciumLocomotionIt moves by cytoplasmic projection by extending its pseudopodiaCytoplasm flows into the projected pseudopodia & anchoring the tips to the ground.Using the rhythmic beating of the cilia.Enables the paramecium to move forward while rotating & spiraling along its axis.

Living Processes of Unicellular OrganismsArnieAdnan

Life ProcessesAmoeba sp.ParameciumRespirationGases exchange (takes ins O2 & releases CO2) by diffusion across the body surface//plasma membrane.OsmoregulationExcess water diffuses into the contractile vacuole, causing it to enlarge & fuses with cell membrane. The excess water & waste materials are expelled to the surrounding water.Excess water & waste products are collected by the contractile vacuole.Its then contract & the contents are expelled to the surrounding water.

Living Processes of Unicellular OrganismsArnieAdnan

Life ProcessesAmoeba sp.ParameciumExcretionWaste products (CO2 & urea) are expelled by diffusion.Its contractile vacuole contracts to control osmotic pressure (osmoregulation) by expelling excess water & their contents.GrowthGrows by synthesising new cytoplasm.SensitivityMoves away from unfavourable stimuli; acids & bright light.Moves towards favourable stimuli.Sensitive to chemicals, O2, CO2, temperature & changes in light intensity

Living Processes of Unicellular OrganismsArnieAdnan

Life ProcessesAmoeba sp.ParameciumReproductionReproduces asexually by binary fission and by forming spores.Reproduces asexually by binary fission and also sexually by conjugation.

Living Processes of Unicellular OrganismsArnieAdnan

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HOMEWORKDiscuss the followingLiving processes in unicellular organisms. [10 marks]Cell organization in multicellular organisms. [10 marks]Explain briefly the mechanism involves in maintaining internal environment. [4 marks]By giving examples, explain how various systems in the human body interact with one another to maintain a sta