Chap 1: Community Health - Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Dr. Ping Luo Department of PE and Health...

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Transcript of Chap 1: Community Health - Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Dr. Ping Luo Department of PE and Health...

  • Slide 1
  • Chap 1: Community Health - Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Dr. Ping Luo Department of PE and Health CSU Stanislaus Fall, 2004
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Accurately define the terms health, community health, population health, and public health. Explain the difference between personal and community health activities List and discuss the factors that influence a communitys health Chapter Objectives
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Chapter Objectives Briefly relate the history of community/public health, including the recent history of community and public health in the twentieth- century United States Provide a brief overview of the current health status of Americans. Describe the status of efforts to improve world health and list some plans for the future.
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Chapter Objectives Describe the purpose of the Health People 2010 goals and objectives as they apply to the planning process of the health of Americans.
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  • Chap 1: Community Health I ntroduction Definitions, Concepts, & Principles Community Health vs. Personal Health Brief History of Community Health American Health Concerns in the 90s
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  • Chap 1: Community Health HEALTH A state of complete of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. World Health Organization - 1947 A dynamic state or condition which is multidimensional in nature and results from the adaptation to his/her environment. D efinitions
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Definitions COMMUNITY Group of people who have common characteristics COMMUNITY HEALTH the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions, both private and public, to promote, protect, and preserve their health.
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Population Health The health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group or locality and the actions and conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health Public Health Health status of a defined group of people and governmental actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve the peoples health
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Community Health vs. Personal Health PERSONAL Individual actions and decision making that affect the health of an individual or their immediate family COMMUNITY Activities aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Factors Affecting Community Health H EALTH OF THE C OMMUNITY P HYSICAL F ACTORS Industrial development Community size Environment Geography S OCIAL /C ULTURAL F ACTORS Beliefs, Traditions, and Prejudices Economy, Politics, Religion Socioeconomic Status Social Norms C OMMUNITY O RGANIZATION Ways in which communities organize their resources; Tax vs Non-tax supported services I NDIVIDUAL B EHAVIORS Takes the concerted effort of many - if not most - to make a community voluntary program work
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Prehistory 7000+ BC Egyptians 1500 -1050 BC Greeks 400 BC Romans 450 BC - 410 AD Middle Ages 410 - 1500AD Renaissance 1500 - 1700 Hammurabi 1750 BC Enlightenment 1700s 19th Century 20th Century 21st Century
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Brief History and Public Health EARLIEST CIVILIZATIONS ANCIENT SOCIETIES - before 500 B.C. Northern India: evidence of bathrooms and sewers Sumarian clay tablet: evidence of prescription drugs Code of Hammurabi: laws pertaining to physicians and health practices CLASSICAL CULTURES - 500 B.C. - 500 A.D. Greeks: Games of strength and skill for men Greeks: Active in community sanitation Romans: Built aqueducts and sewer systems Romans: Built hospitals and infirmaries for slaves
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Brief History and Public Health MIDDLE AGES - 500 to 1500 A.D. Spiritual era of public health Great epidemics of plague RENAISSANCE AND EXPLORATION - 1500 to 1700 A.D. Rebirth of thinking about nature of the world and of humankind Belief that diseases were caused by environmental, not spiritual factors
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Brief History and Public Health EIGHTEENTH CENTURY INDUSTRIAL GROWTH Cities overcrowded Water supplies inadequate Streets heaped with trash and garbage Occupational health Workplaces unsafe and unhealthy Workforce poor Children forced to work long hours
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Brief History and Public Health NINETEENTH CENTURY EARLY APPROACH Few advancements in public health Federal government approach Laissez faire Health quackery thrived EPIDEMICS CONTINUED London cholera epidemic struck in 1849 Miasmas theory of contagious disease Dr. John Snow and the Broad Street pump
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Brief History and Public Health LEMUEL SHATTUCKS HEALTH REPORT, 1850 FIVE PERIODS OF ERA Miasma, 1850 to 1875 Bacteriological, 1875 to 1900 Health Resources Development, 1900 to 1960 Social Engineering, 1960 to 1975 Health Promotion, 1975 to present
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Health Resources BEGINNING OF TWENTIETH CENTURY Life expectancy less than 50 years Communicable diseases leading causes of death Children health concerns
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Health Resources (1900-1960) REFORM PHASE - 1900 to 1920 GREAT DEPRESSION & WORLD WAR II 1929 - 1935 Social Security Act of 1935 National Institutes of Health established - 1930s THE POSTWAR YEARS 1945 - 1960 Communicable Disease Center established - 1946 World Health Organization founded - 1948
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Health Resources (1900-1960) SOCIAL ENGINEERING 1960 - 1973 Congress passed Medicare and Medicaid bills - 1965 OSHA Act Signed 1970 Health Promotion Period (1975 - 1990) Lifestyle related diseases High medical care costs
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  • Chap 1: Community Health HEALTH PROMOTION LIFESTYLE CHANGES World Health Organizations Health for All, 1977 Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for the Nation, 1979 226 Objectives based on preventive services, health protection, and health promotion Healthy People 2000 Over 300 objectives Healthy People 2010
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  • Chap 1: Community Health Community Health in the 21st Century World Planning reduce the burden of excess mortality and morbidity developing effective health systems expanding the knowledge base
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  • Chap 1: Community Health C HAPTER 1 C OMMUNITY H EALTH - Y ESTERDAY, T ODAY, A ND T OMORROW