Chandra Sekhar Pokanati,Shcp

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    Nanotechnology Critical Endeavor incancer

    ByBy

    P.P. ChandrasekharChandrasekhar(M.Pharm)(M.Pharm)

    Guided byGuided by

    Mr. Subhasis Debnath (M.Pharm,Mr. Subhasis Debnath (M.Pharm,Ph.D)Ph.D)

    Seven Hills College of Pharmacy,Seven Hills College of Pharmacy,

    http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://www.shcptirupati.com/Images/Logo.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.shcptirupati.com/Home1.aspx&usg=__L1iZmEzyUHNHa9vR4WOlZmiHFUU=&h=200&w=200&sz=20&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&tbnid=ipvGyAbBfdo2SM:&tbnh=104&tbnw=104&ei=MBZeT7_4DMKtrAfKmOSiCw&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dseven%2Bhills%2Bcollege%2Bof%2Bpharmacy%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1
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    Introduction:Introduction:

    NeoplasmsNeop

    lasms: are defined as a new formation of cell: are defined as a new formation of cellclusters, which have lost their ability to control cellclusters, which have lost their ability to control celldivision.division.

    Neoplasms can either be benign or malignant.Neoplasms can either be benign or malignant. Benign tumorsBenig

    n tumors::

    1. Differentiated.1. Differentiated.

    2. Slow rate of proliferation.2. Slow rate of proliferation.

    3. Encapsulated.3. Encapsulated.4. Do not infiltrate surrounding tissue.4. Do not infiltrate surrounding tissue.

    5. Usually do not result in patient death.5. Usually do not result in patient death.http://www.scienceclarified.com/images/uesc_10_img0586.jpg

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    Introduction (cont.):Introduction (cont.):

    Malignant tumors:Malig

    nant tumors:1. High rate of cell1. High rate of cell

    proliferation.proliferation.

    2. Loss of contact2. Loss of contact

    inhibition.inhibition.3. Lack of differentiation.3. Lack of differentiation.

    4. Grow by invading and4. Grow by invading andinfiltrating.infiltrating.

    5. Loss of cohesiveness.5. Loss of cohesiveness.

    6. Resistance to6. Resistance toapoptosis.apoptosis.

    http://www.news-medical.net/images/breast%20cancer%20cell.jpg

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    Estimated Number of Persons Alive in the U.S.

    Diagnosed With Cancer by Site (N = 10.5 M)

    Prevalence of Cancer type in the US. Data source: 2005 Submission. U.S. estimated cancer prevalence counts were estimated by applying U.S.

    populations to SEER 9 and historical Connecticut Limited Duration Prevalence proportions and adjusted to represent complete prevalence.

    Populations from January 2003 were based on the average of 2002 and 2003 population estimates from the U.S. Bureau of the Census.www.cancer.gov.

    http://www.seer.cancer.gov/registries/terms.htmlhttp://www.seer.cancer.gov/registries/terms.html
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    The Cell Cycle and CancerThe Cell Cycle and Cancer::

    Cell proliferation is a tightly controlledCell proliferation is a tightly controlled

    process that ensures the accurateprocess that ensures the accurate

    replication and transcription of geneticreplication and transcription of genetic

    information.information.

    Genetic mutations can either be repaired, orGenetic mutations can either be repaired, or

    result in the induction of apoptosis.result in the induction of apoptosis. Mutations in certain genes, calledMutations in certain genes, called

    oncogenes, can result in dysregulation ofoncogenes, can result in dysregulation of

    the cell cycle, resistance to apoptosis, andthe cell cycle, resistance to apoptosis, and

    in the development of cancer.in the development of cancer.

    A large number of todays most effectiveA large number of todays most effective

    cancer treatments are cytotoxic agents thatcancer treatments are cytotoxic agents that

    target the cell cycle.target the cell cycle.http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2001/press.html

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    HISTORY OF CANCER THERAPYHISTORY OF CANCER THERAPY ::

    (Chabner and Roberts, 2005)

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    Current Cancer Treatment Strategies:Current Cancer Treatment Strategies:

    SurgerySurgery: T: The first line ofhe first line oftreatment for solid tumors, andtreatment for solid tumors, andmay be curative if the tumormay be curative if the tumorhas not metastasized.has not metastasized.

    Radiation TreatmentsRadiation Treatments:: UsesUsesionizing radiation.ionizing radiation.

    Chemotherapeutic AgentsChemotherapeutic Agents::Three main classes ofThree main classes ofcytotoxic drugs used to treatcytotoxic drugs used to treatneoplastic disease. Theneoplastic disease. Thealkylating agents, thealkylating agents, theantimetabolites, and theantimetabolites, and thenatural products.natural products.

    http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/art/schematic.gif

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    Current Cancer Treatment Strategies (cont.):Current Cancer Treatment Strategies (cont.):

    1)1) Alkylating agents: FAlkylating agents: Form covalentorm covalent

    bonds on double stranded DNA,bonds on double stranded DNA,and prevent transcription.and prevent transcription.

    Activation of DNA repairActivation of DNA repair

    mechanisms result in DNA strandmechanisms result in DNA strand

    breaks, and in apoptosis.breaks, and in apoptosis.

    2)2) Antimetabolites: Most effectiveAntimetabolites: Most effective

    during the S phase of the cell cycle.during the S phase of the cell cycle.

    Include the folic acid analogs (ex.Include the folic acid analogs (ex.

    methotrexate), pyrimidine analogsmethotrexate), pyrimidine analogs

    (ex. fluorouracil), and purine(ex. fluorouracil), and purineanalogs (ex. mercaptopurine). Theiranalogs (ex. mercaptopurine). Their

    mechanisms of action are to inhibitmechanisms of action are to inhibit

    DNA synthesis, and/or to inhibitDNA synthesis, and/or to inhibit

    transcription and translation.transcription and translation.

    http://www.ovc.uoguelph.ca/BioMed/Courses/Public/Pharmacology/pharmsite/98-409/Cancer/Cancer_images/Nitrog_must.gif

    http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/chem227/nucleicfunction/cancer/methotrexate.gif

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    Current Cancer Treatment Strategies (cont.):Current Cancer Treatment Strategies (cont.):

    Photodynamic TherapyPhotodynamic Therapy: Uses a: Uses aphotosensitizing drug (porfimerphotosensitizing drug (porfimer

    sodium).sodium).

    Hormonal treatmentsHormonal treatments: For certain: For certain

    types of tumors.types of tumors. Angiogenesis Inhibitors:Angiogenesis Inhibitors: InhibitInhibit

    tumor vascularization. The firsttumor vascularization. The first

    FDA approved angiogenesisFDA approved angiogenesis

    inhibitor was bevacizumab, whichinhibitor was bevacizumab, whichis a humanized monoclonalis a humanized monoclonal

    antibody against vascularantibody against vascular

    endothelial growth factorendothelial growth factor

    (VEGF).(VEGF).

    https://reader009.{domain}/reader009/html5/0504/5aec734097dab/5aec734c11a04.jpg

    http://www.orienttumor.com/english/MT/PDT/002_s.jpg

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    Current Cancer Treatment Strategies (cont.):Current Cancer Treatment Strategies (cont.):

    Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors:Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: InhibitInhibitDNA synthesis and/or geneDNA synthesis and/or genetranscription. There are currentlytranscription. There are currentlythree FDA approved tyrosinethree FDA approved tyrosinekinase inhibitors: Imatinib,kinase inhibitors: Imatinib,

    gefitinib, and erlotinib.gefitinib, and erlotinib. Biological Response ModifiersBiological Response Modifiers

    (BRMs):(BRMs): Enhance the bodysEnhance the bodysability to effectively fight cancer,ability to effectively fight cancer,or they minimize chemo sideor they minimize chemo side

    effects. BRMs include interferons,effects. BRMs include interferons,interleukins, colony-stimulatinginterleukins, colony-stimulatingfactors, monoclonal antibodies,factors, monoclonal antibodies,and vaccines for the prevention ofand vaccines for the prevention ofcertain types of cancer.certain types of cancer.

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    Nanotechnology in the Treatment of Cancer:Nanotechnology in the Treatment of Cancer:

    Nanotechnology has generated a greatNanotechnology has generated a great

    deal of interest in the field ofdeal of interest in the field of

    oncology due to its potential tooncology due to its potential to

    selectively deliver and concentrateselectively deliver and concentrate

    drugs to tumors while minimizingdrugs to tumors while minimizing

    damage to healthy cells.damage to healthy cells.

    Two FDA approved nanoparticleTwo FDA approved nanoparticle

    formulations for the treatment offormulations for the treatment of

    cancer:cancer:

    1. Abraxane1. Abraxane: a suspension of: a suspension of

    albumin-bound paclitaxel (130 nm).albumin-bound paclitaxel (130 nm).

    FDA approved in January, 2005.FDA approved in January, 2005.

    2. Doxil2. Doxil: liposomal formulation of: liposomal formulation of

    doxorubicin (100 nm). Approved indoxorubicin (100 nm). Approved in

    February, 2005.February, 2005.

    http://www.doxil.com/images/clientChart.gif