[Challenge:Future] Lost Generation

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Transcript of [Challenge:Future] Lost Generation

  • THE LOST GENERATION

    Teodora Koleva

  • THE FUTURE OF EUROPE DEPENDS UPON THE 94

    MILLION EUROPEANS AGED BETWEEN 15 AND 29.

    Sick Disabled

    young

    carers

    engaged in

    other

    activity

    low levels

    of

    education

    immigration

    background

    Young

    people with

    disability

    Family

    background

    vulnerable

    subgroups

    NEET not in employment, education or training

  • ACCORDING TO EUROSTAT, IN 2011, 7.5 MILLION YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 1524 AND AN ADDITIONAL 6.5 MILLION YOUNG PEOPLE AGED 2529 WERE EXCLUDED FROM THE

    LABOUR MARKET AND EDUCATION IN EUROPE.

    Below

    7% 8%

    16% 20%

    29%

    NEET rates in 2011

    Reforms undertaken in some countries:

    apprenticeship

    traineeship

    on-the-job training

    with schooling

    temporary and

    part-time work

    various programs

    /"I can do better/

  • tHe SiZe oF tHe NEET proBlem in Bulgaria

    Crisis, Negative changes

    96.97% Higher education

    145.83% Secondary

    129.59% Upper secondary specialized

    167.74% Upper secondary general

    76.28% lower secondary

    83.43% Primary or lower

    Level

    of Education

    19.5%

    Higher education

    23.6%Secondary

    22.5% Upper secondary specialized

    24.9% Upper secondary general

    44.6% Lower secondary

    65.3% Primary or lower

    Unemploymet by Gender

    subgroup of Bulgarian women not in employment-

    83 % of which do not want to work for personal reasons, such

    as raising children or doing unpaid family work

    Social status amplies the risk of being unemployed:

    Parents who are unemployed, inactive, with low education, illiterate, without skills

    live in poverty

    ethnic groups

    Roma

    Risky economic sectors:

    Agriculture,

    manufacturing, construction and

    wholesale

    and retail trade

    /70 % (57,000) of the youth employment reduction/

    Lack of adequate education, qualication and skills

    65.3% with primary and lower education

    44.6 % with lower secondary

    education

    85% Drop-outs

    of school

    Bulgarian labour market has lower flexibility than the EU labour market as a whole. Young people have always been considered a group at the margin of the Bulgarian labour market.

    Crucial factors unemployment or inactivity among young people (1524) in Bulgaria :

  • STATUS ZER0

    YOUNG PEOPLE APPEARED TO count For notHing and Were

    going noWHere

    social exclusion

    NEET Profile in bg:

    Female Inactive Without work experience High skilled Discouraged workers

    disaffection political marginalisation

    long-term scarring effects on their labour market performance

    consequences

    for the individual

    isolation

    risky behaviour

    unstable mental and physical health

    Being a young person is not an advantage but a disadvantage

  • GOVERNMENTS HAVE BEEN VERY ACTIVE IN PROMOTING POLICIES FOR RE-

    ENGAGING YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE LABOUR MARKET AND THE

    EDUCATION SYSTEM.

    Preventing early school-leaving

    Alternative learning environments and innovative teaching methods

    Career guidance and educational assistance

    Financial incentives and parental engagement

    Increasing the scope of compulsory education

    Reintegrating early school-leavers

    Addressing more complex personalissues

    Supporting school-to-work transitions

    Improving service delivery and offering youth guarantees

    Providing information, guidance and counselling

    Work-experience opportunities and skills development

    /learn-work jobs: www.stagemarkt.nl/

    Entrepreneurship support

    Apprenticeships and vocational training

    apprenticeship countries (Austria and Germany) managed to keep their

    youth unemployment down

    Training courses

    Internships

    Facilitating mobility and financial support

    Employer incentives and subsidies

  • "ABANDON ALL HOPE, YE WHO ENTER HERE"

    Higher education in Bulgaria is producing unemployed people. Since 1989, the nation has lived through a transition period, which has encompassed thorough

    changes of the economy, from command to market-oriented and the polity from totalitarianism

    to pluralist democracy. These changes affected education in a variety of ways.

    freeing of the education system from ideological constraints

    decentralization

    restoration of private schools

    acute economic crisis no connection between the universities and the labour market

    Approximately a million of Bulgarians have emigrated since the fall of communism in 1989, nearly 85 percent

    of them under age 30

    Money can really buy your happiness. Therefore the saddest place in the world, relative to its income per person, is Bulgaria.

  • NO EXCUSES "People say you can only improve an education system over 25 years - but look at Poland and Singapore, which have improved in a very short time, we've seen dramatic changes."

    Youngsters in Bulgaria should enthusiastically borrow ideas from other countries, to learn from each others policy approaches and ACT. ButBulgarians are not motivated. Compared to the salaries in the rest of the EU, salaries in Bulgaria are relatively lower.

    GENERAL SALARY LEVELS IN BULGARIA

    DESCRIPTION COST

    Average salary for Bulgaria 250 Euros

    Minimal salary by law 75 Euros

    Total contributions paid by

    the employer, including

    health care, unemployment

    and social security

    contributions.

    Around 35% over the base

    salary

    SENIOR PROGRAMMERJOB DESCRIPTION: This professional carries out program

    development, including evaluation of

    program prerequisites, development of new

    programs, testing and

    documentation of programs

    etc. He/she also coordinates

    work between programmers

    and junior programmers. This

    person has at least a high

    school degree, university

    diploma in Computer Science,

    or supplementary courses in

    computer information systems.

    This person has at least 5

    years relevant experience.

    Country Total Yearly Cost

    (Euro)

    Low

    Salary

    High

    Salary

    US 52,000 80,000

    France 43,000 55,000

    Germany 47,000 57,000

    United

    Kingdom

    44,000 59,000

    Ireland 35,000 52,000

    Netherlan

    ds

    38,000 47,000

    Italy 42,000 52,000

    Japan 59,000 83,000

    BULGA

    RIA

    15,000 35,000

  • "POVERTY IS NO LONGER deStiny

    You can see this at the level of economies, such as South Korea, Singapore." Mr Schleicher declares: Anyone can create an education system where a few at the

    top succeed, the real challenge is to push through the entire cohort. In China, this means using the best teachers in the toughest schools.

    Ivy WangFormer UK university student: There are jobs everywhere in China, she

    says, but the wages are "not satisfying". She was offered a salary of between $500 and $1,000 per month and half of that

    would be spent on renting a single room. "Chinese employers know exactly who they want - someone who will do as they

    are told but not for much money," Ms Wang says. "I work for a Swiss company now. "Working for a foreign company means I can explain what I have done and what I

    have achieved, whereas with a Chinese company I have to be really quiet. "China wants to broaden its strategy and have people who speak English or have a foreign education background, but at the same time they really want to control those people easily," she says.

  • tHe World iS Big and SalVation lurKS

    around tHe corner

    What Bulgaria has to offer to young people:

    Labour market, which is not flexible

    Education with no practical training

    The lowest income per person in EU

    A sad Future

    What to do to escape from this miserable

    perspective:

    Be more flexible /gain practical experience

    thanks to apprenticeships and vocational

    training offered by Governments/

    Accumulate work experience in Bulgaria and

    abroad

    Be able to work in multinational enterprises