Ch07 automatic fire sprinkler systems

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Transcript of Ch07 automatic fire sprinkler systems

  • Chapter 7Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems

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  • ObjectivesDescribe an automatic fire sprinkler system.Discuss the myths and realities associated with automatic fire sprinkler system operation.List and describe the different components that make up an automatic fire sprinkler system.

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  • ObjectivesList and describe the different types of automatic fire sprinkler system heads.Describe the different types of automatic fire sprinkler systems and the best applications for those systems.State the factors that determine requirements to install automatic fire sprinkler systems.

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  • ObjectivesDiscuss the design concepts behind automatic fire sprinkler systems.List and describe different occupancy and commodity classifications.Discuss the inspection and testing requirements for automatic fire sprinkler systems.

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  • IntroductionAutomatic fire sprinkler systems are networks of underground and overhead piping fed by automatic water supply.The basis for a fire sprinkler system is to keep a fire at a relatively small size and under control.The purpose of a commercial or industrial fire sprinkler system is to provide both life safety and property protection.

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  • Fire Sprinkler System ComponentsPipe and fittingsPipe and fittings join together to provide a conduit for the water. Joining methodsPiping and tubing

    materialsFitting materials

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Fire Sprinkler System ComponentsGaugesSmall but important component Water gaugesAir gaugesShould not be subjected to freezing temperaturesShould have a control valve capable of draining

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  • Fire Sprinkler System ComponentsValvesWater control valvesCheck valvesDrain valvesIsolation valves Pressure-reducing and pressure-relief valves General-purpose valves

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Fire Sprinkler System ComponentsPipe support and stabilization assembliesPiping is held in place by the following:Bracing, guides, and restraints Hanger assemblies Fasteners With exceptions, all components must be made of ferrous materials that can handle heat.NFPA 13

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  • Fire Sprinkler System ComponentsAutomatic sprinkler headsDistribute water over a limited area at designated flow rateMost operate at a predetermined temperature.

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Fire Sprinkler System ComponentsAutomatic sprinkler heads (contd)ComponentsFrame, heat-sensitive element, orifice, orifice cap, deflector, trim ring/cover/cup/escutcheon plate, sprinkler head wrenchTypesOld-style, standard spray, specialtyIdentification, labeling, and markingsSprinkler identification number

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Types of SystemsWet pipe systemsLeast expensiveMost frequently installedEasiest to maintainEasiest to modifyMost reliable

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Types of SystemsWet pipe systems (contd)

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  • Types of SystemsDry pipe systemsCan be used for unheated areasMay have accelerators or exhausters installedMore complex, in general, than wet pipe sprinkler systems

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Types of SystemsDry pipe systems (contd)

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  • Types of SystemsPreaction systemsClosed sprinkler heads Most require two separate events. Preaction valve can be released by various activation methods.Manual release

    capabilities A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Types of SystemsPreaction systems (contd)

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  • Types of SystemsDeluge systemsDeluge valve receives the appropriate signal from the detection system to release the clapper.Electric methodHydraulic methodPneumatic methodUsually protect high-hazard occupancies

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Types of SystemsDeluge systems (contd)

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  • Types of SystemsResidential sprinkler systemsVast majority are wet pipe systems.Primary piping materials are CPVC, copper, polyethylene, and polybutylene. Water is supplied by domestic water line.

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Required InstallationsModel codes by the NFPA and ICC establish requirements.Primarily based on use and occupancy conditionsSpecific thresholdsOccupant loadBuilding heightStorage conditionsNumber of levels above or below exit dischargeThresholds can influence design of a building under certain conditions.

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  • Design and Installation StandardsOverviewPublished fire sprinkler system design and installation standards are available from model code and insurance organizations.NFPA 13NFPA 13DNFPA 13R

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  • Design and Installation StandardsNFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler SystemsPerformance objective Maintain control of a fire to the point that emergency responders can complete the suppression activitySame for all occupancy, commodity, and storage conditionsWidely used

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  • Design and Installation StandardsNFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured HomesSystem must:Be economically viableProvide sufficient time for escape or rescuePrevent flashoverRevisions use data to develop requirements for residential sprinkler heads.

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  • Design and Installation StandardsNFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Low-Rise Residential OccupanciesLoosely follows NFPA 13 requirementsFollows NFPA 13D concepts of placing sprinkler heads Has evolved to deal with technological advances

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  • Design and Installation StandardsOther fire sprinkler standardsUsed when:Level of hazard exceeding the scope of NFPA 13Specific design requirements for a hazardThe approving authority requires the use of a different standardNFPA 30, 30B, 214, 804Insurance providers may develop own standards.Design professional determines best to use.

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  • Design professionalsClassify the occupancy, commodities, or storage arrangement Determine the hazardChoose pipe schedule or

    hydraulicDetermine flow/pressure reqsDetermine if adequate water supply

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett LearningDesign Concepts for Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems

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  • Design Concepts for Automatic Fire Sprinkler SystemsThe basis for designing an NFPA 13 systemThe professional must determine three factors: The hazardThe design density required to protect the hazardThe water supply necessary to support the system demandWhen these are determined, designer provides best system to control/extinguish a fire.

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  • Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance RequirementsAcceptance inspections and testsFlushingHydrostatic and air testsVisual inspectionOperation of componentsMain drain test

    A. Maurice Jones, Jr./Jones & Bartlett Learning

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  • Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance RequirementsPeriodic inspection, testing, and maintenanceTesting should be in accordance with the established intervals listed in NFPA 25.Impairments to a fire sprinkler system result from the following:Component failureLack of proper inspection, testing, and maintenance

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  • SummaryAutomatic fire sprinkler systems are not just a series of pipes and sprinkler heads randomly placed throughout buildings; they are engineered systems designed to control a fire within minutes of the fire starting.The basis for commercial and industrial fire sprinkler system design is not necessarily to extinguish the fire but to keep the fire at a relatively small size and under control until fire department personnel arrive.

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  • SummaryAutomatic fire sprinkler systems offer building owners and homeowners a reliable, effective, economical, and proven protection system that will keep them from losing the things they value, including their property and the lives of their families, employees, and the occupants of the buildings they own.

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  • SummaryFor well over 125 years, properly designed, installed, inspected, tested, and maintained automatic fire sprinkler systems have provided property protection and life safety with unmatched success.The model codes permit some increases and some reductions in building performance and construction characteristics when a full automatic fire sprinkler system is installed.

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  • SummaryThough fire sprinkler systems may seem simple, they require an understanding of the hazard; competent design, layout, and installation; periodic inspection, testing, and maintenance; and reevaluation to ensure that the hazard has not changed to the point where the original system design and installation are no longer adequate to protect it.

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  • SummaryThe different types of automatic fire sprinkler systems may have similar characteristics, but not all systems are alike and to assume so is a mistake. Changes in occupancy, contents, storage arrangement, and process can render a sprinkler system inadequate and may require a different type of system to protect the building or structure.

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