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  • 1/16/2012

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    Age-Related Patterns in Health and Disease

    • Mortality Rates and Causes of Death

    • Morbidity Rates, Illness, and Disability

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    • Mortality rate: probability of dying in any one year.

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Mortality Rates and Causes of Death

    Age-Related Patterns in Health and Disease

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Morbidity Rates, Illness, and Disability

    • Common Health Conditions:

    • Younger adults twice as likely as those over 65 to suffer from acute illness.

    • Chronic illness (e.g., heart disease) shows age-related increase.

    • Disability is determined if illness interferes with daily functioning across:

    Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLS)

    Age-Related Patterns in Health and Disease

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Morbidity Rates, Illness, and Disability

    • Many housing alternatives exist with different levels of care:

    Retirement communities Congregate living facilities Assisted- living facilities Skilled-nursing facilities Continuing-care retirement communities

    Age-Related Patterns in Health and Disease

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Morbidity Rates, Illness, and Disability • Self-Ratings of Health

    • Some validity…

    • Old Age and Disabilities in Context • All older adults DO NOT suffer from disease or disability.

    Age-Related Patterns in Health and Disease

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Specific Diseases

    Cardiovascular Disease Cancer Alzheimer’s Disease Tobacco Use Overview of Aging and Physical Disease

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Cardiovascular Disease • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD):

    •Atherosclerosis: coronary arteries slowly become blocked.

    •NOT a normal part of aging.

    •The number one killer of women in US.

    •Note gender differences in heart attacks.

    Specific Diseases

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Cancer • Cancer is rapidly accelerated, uncontrolled cell division and is caused by a series of mutations, or genetic errors, at the cellular level.

    • Second leading cause of death for adults in US.

    • Lung cancer is leading cause of cancer death for both men and women.

    • Incidence of cancer increases with age.

    Specific Diseases

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Alzheimer’s Disease • Alzheimer’s is a progressive, incurable deterioration of key areas of the brain.

    • Truly a disease of old age (90% cases develop after age 65).

    • Fourth leading cause of death and major type of dementia.

    • New medications slow progress of Alzheimer’s.

    Specific Diseases

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Alzheimer’s Disease (cont’d)

    • Brain abnormalities caused by the mutation of some genes:

    �Senile plaques: small, circular deposits of a dense protein betamyloid.

    �Neurofibrillary tangles: webs of degenerating neurons.

    • Early onset (10% of cases) linked to 3 genes. Cause of late-onset less clear.

    • Alzheimer’s dementia is clearly distinct from normal aging.

    Specific Diseases

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    A Word About Tobacco Use • #1 way to ensure a long and healthy life is not to smoke.

    • Causes many different types of cancer.

    • Smoking rates in the U.S. have gone down, but they have gone up in other countries.

    Specific Diseases

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    •Although the risk of having some disease increases with age, no one of these specific diseases is an inevitable part of aging.

    Overview of Aging and Physical Disease

    Specific Diseases

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Prevalence of mental disorders seems to be constant across age groups, although different disorders are predominant at different ages.

    Mental Health

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    • Major symptoms are feelings of fear and dread when no obvious danger is present.

    • Panic disorders: sudden episodes of intense apprehension, shortness of breath, etc.

    • Phobias: fears and avoidance out of proportion to the danger.

    • Generalized anxiety disorder: chronic, persistent, and excessive worry.

    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder: guilt and anxiety over certain thoughts.

    Anxiety Disorders

    Mental Health

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    • Agoraphobia: fear of leaving one’s home.

    • ~ 20% of older adults suffer from an anxiety disorder.

    • Rates of phobias increase with age.

    • High rate of comorbidity between anxiety and depression.

    • The harm avoidance gene has been linked to both anxiety and depression.

    • This gene is thought to determine the effectiveness of serotonin.

    Anxiety Disorders (cont’d)

    Mental Health

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    • Depression is a mood disorder typified by a long- term pervasive sense of sadness and hopelessness.

    • Some difference in type of symptoms older adults report (e.g., more physical symptoms), but no difference in response to treatment.

    Mood Disorders - Depression

    Mental Health

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Age Changes in Mental Health

    • There is a clear increase in suicide with age.

    • Elderly white males are most likely to commit suicide.

    • Predictors of suicide:

    • Depression • Living alone • Anxiety and other emotional problems • Medical problems, etc.

    Suicide

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Mental Health

    • Dependence on drugs or alcohol.

    • More common in men than in women.

    Substance Abuse Disorders

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    • Affect a person’s judgment to control harmful impulses.

    • May have ADHD or Oppositional Deviant Disorder.

    • More prevalent in males than in females.

    Impulse Control Disorders

    Mental Health

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    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    • Psychotherapy.

    • Psychopharmacology – medication.

    • Alternative providers.

    Treatment of Mental Health Disorders

    Mental Health

    Individual Differences in Health

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    Gender Differences Socioeconomics, Race, and Ethnicity Personality and Behavior Patterns Genetics Developmental Origins The Road to Good Health

    The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

    • Women die at older ages of basically same diseases as men. • Women have more disability and more non-fatal chronic diseases. • Women have a higher incidence of most psychological disorders. • Men have higher rates of alcoholism, substance abuse and suicide. • The differences in medical disorders (e.g., CHD) are both biological and social. • More difficult to explain differences in emotional disorders.

    Gender Differences

    Individual Differences in Health

  • 1/16/2012